The emeralds of the Ural Mountains, in what is now called the Russian Federation, have been known for more than 160 years. They were famous worldwide during the early part of the 20th century. However, because little information was made available about these deposits in recent years, many in the gem industry concluded that they had been exhausted. This article reveals that mining and processing are ongoing in the region, with significant reserves of gem-quality emerald still to be exploited. In addition, the reopening of four mines promises to increase commercial production.