The Star of the South is one of the world’s most famous diamonds. Discovered in 1853, it became the first Brazilian diamond to receive international acclaim. This article presents the first complete gemological characterization of this historic 128.48 ct diamond. The clarity grade was determined to be VS2 and the color grade, Fancy Light pinkish brown. Overall, the gemological and spectroscopic characteristics of this nominal type IIa diamond—including graining and strain patterns, UV-Vis-NIR and mid- to near-infrared absorption spectra, and Raman photoluminescence—are consistent with those of other natural type IIa diamonds of similar color.