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Perfect shining spheres. Lustrous baroque forms. Seductive strands, warm to the touch. Pearls are simply and purely organic.

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Beautiful Lustre

Pearl’s special lustre sets it apart from other gems.

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Perfect Sphere

Perfectly spherical pearls of excellent quality are extreme rarities.

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Smooth as Silk

Few pearls are completely blemish free.

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About Pearl


Perhaps the best-loved gems of all time, pearls - natural and cultured - occur in a wide variety of colours. The most familiar are white and cream, but the palette of colours extends to every hue. Natural pearls form around a microscopic irritant in the bodies of certain mollusks. Cultured pearls are the result of the deliberate insertion of a bead or piece of tissue that the mollusk coats with nacre.

Pearl Description

Pearl History and Lore

Pearl Journey

Birthstones & Anniversaries

Pearl is the birthstone for June and the gem of the thirtieth wedding anniversary.

2206 BC

A Chinese historian writes about pearls for the first time.

653 Fifth Avenue

In 1917, Pierre Cartier traded a double strand of natural pearls for a mansion on Fifth Avenue in New York City.


Kokichi Mikimoto successfully cultures a pearl in Japan.


  • Mineral: Calcium Carbonate


There are a number of processes used to alter the colour or apparent clarity, or to improve the durability of gems.

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Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.

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Any gem can be imitated – sometimes by man-made materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem.

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gem love

Why We Love This Gemstone


Luster results from reflection of light rays off the pearl’s surface, and from concentric inner layers of nacre, like light bouncing off a convex mirror.


Imitation pearls are smooth when rubbed against your teeth, while natural or cultured pearls have a slightly rough texture.

Natural pearls

Natural pearls can be separated from cultured pearls by taking X-rays to reveal their inner structures.

Quality Factors

An assessment of the following characteristics determines the value of each type of pearl.


quality factors

Pearls with high luster have sharp bright reflections on the surface.

Surface quality

quality factors

The number of blemishes on a pearl's surface is evaluated to judge quality.


quality factors

Spherical pearls are the most valued but symmetrical drops are also sought.


quality factors

Although white is most classic, appreciation has grown for more unusual natural colours.

Nacre thickness

quality factors

Nacre thickness is evaluated to make sure that cultured pearls are durable as well as beautiful.


quality factors

Cultured pearls range from 2-16mm in diameter, depending on the mollusk used.


quality factors

For pearl strands and multi-pearl pieces, how well the pearls match (or mix) affects the value.

Pearl Quality Factors: The Comprehensive Guide


Explore sources, gemmological research and the role of gems in history.

Strong Pinkish Purple Freshwater Bead-Cultured Pearls

Yixin (Jessie) Zhou and Chunhui Zhou , Jul 31, 2015 Read more in English

Freshwater Pearling in Tennessee

Tao Hsu, Chunhui Zhou, Artitaya Homkrajae, Joyce Wing Yan Ho, Emiko Yazawa and Pedro Padua , Oct 7, 2016 Read Article
Pearl farm on the Indonesian island of Lombok

Bead-Cultured and Non-Bead-Cultured Pearls from Lombok, Indonesia

Nicholas Sturman, Jeffery Bergman, Julie Poli, Artitaya Homkrajae, Areeya Manustrong, and Nanthaporn Somsa-ard , Nov 7, 2016 Read more in English

GIA Field Gemmologists Visit Pearl Farms Near Mergui, Myanmar

GIA Staff , Sep 18, 2015 Read Article