This article describes the major gem materials of Vietnam, together with their new finds and recent production. The gemological properties and chemical composition of ruby, sapphire, spinel, tourmaline, garnet, and peridot from the most important Vietnamese sources are updated. Other gems such as aquamarine, green orthoclase, topaz, zircon, quartz, and pearls are briefly discussed. Commercially significant deposits of ruby, blue and fancy sapphire, and spinel are located in two northern provinces: Yen Bai (Luc Yen and Yen Binh Districts) and Nghe An (Quy Chau and Quy Hop Districts). Large volumes of blue, green, and yellow sapphire come from the Central Highlands provinces of Dak Lak and Lam Dong, as well as the southern provinces of Dong Nai and Binh Thuan. Of secondary commercial importance are the tourmaline and garnet from Yen Bai and the peridot and zircon from the Central Highlands.