Gems & Gemology Spring 2024, Vol. 60, No. 1

Spring 2024 G&G Publication Information

Editorial Staff

Duncan Pay
Editors, Micro-World 
Nathan Renfro
John I. Koivula
Tyler Smith
Editor-in-Chief Emerita
Alice S. Keller
Managing Editor 
Stuart D. Overlin
Editors, Gem News 
Gagan Choudhary
Christopher M. Breeding
Guanghai Shi
Senior Technical Editor
Jennifer Stone-Sundberg
Brooke Goedert
Editors, Colored Stones Unearthed
Aaron C. Palke
James E. Shigley
Technical Editor
Tao Z. Hsu
Associate Editor
Erica Zaidman
Editor, Diamond Reflections
Evan M. Smith
Assistant Editor
Erin Hogarth
Editors, Lab Notes 
Thomas M. Moses
Shane F. McClure
Sally Eaton-Magaña
Contributing Editors 
James E. Shigley
Raquel Alonso-Perez
Customer Service
(760) 603-4200

Production Staff

Creative Director
Faizah Bhatti
Photo/Video Producer
Kevin Schumacher
Multimedia Associate
Christopher Bonine
Production and
Multimedia Specialist

Michael Creighton
Robert Weldon
Video Production
Albert Salvato

Editorial Review Board

Ahmadjan Abduriyim
Tokyo, Japan
Richard W. Hughes
Bangkok, Thailand
George R. Rossman
Pasadena, California
Timothy Adams
San Diego, California
Jaroslav Hyršl
Prague, Czech Republic
Sudarat Saeseaw
Bangkok, Thailand
Edward W. Boehm
Chattanooga, Tennessee
Dorrit Jacob
Canberra, Australia
Karl Schmetzer
Petershausen, Germany
James E. Butler
Washington, DC
A.J.A. (Bram) Janse
Perth, Australia
Andy Shen
Wuhan, China
Alan T. Collins
London, UK
Mary L. Johnson
San Diego, California
Guanghai Shi
Beijing, China
Sally Eaton-Magaña
Carlsbad, California
Robert E. Kane
Helena, Montana
James E. Shigley
Carlsbad, California
John L. Emmett
Brush Prairie, Washington
Stefanos Karampelas
Paris, France
Elisabeth Strack
Hamburg, Germany
Emmanuel Fritsch
Nantes, France
Lore Kiefert
Lucerne, Switzerland
Nicholas Sturman
Bangkok, Thailand
Eloïse Gaillou
Paris, France
Simon Lawson
Maidenhead, UK
D. Brian Thompson
Florence, Alabama
Al Gilbertson
Carlsbad, California
Ren Lu
Wuhan, China
Fanus Viljoen
Johannesburg, South Africa
Gaston Giuliani
Nancy, France
Thomas M. Moses
New York, New York
Wuyi Wang
New York, New York
Lee A. Groat
Vancouver, Canada
Laura Otter
Canberra, Australia
Christopher M. Welbourn
Reading, UK
Yunbin Guan
Pasadena, California
Aaron C. Palke
Carlsbad, California
Chunhui Zhou
New York, New York
George Harlow
New York, New York
Ilene Reinitz
Chicago, Illinois
J.C. (Hanco) Zwaan
Leiden, The Netherlands
Peter Heaney
University Park, Pennsylvania
Nathan Renfro
Carlsbad, California

About the Cover

This issue spotlights “Garanatus: From Rough to Cut,” a Spectrum Award–winning platinum necklace featuring 28 garnets totaling more than 77 carats. Designed and fabricated by Mary van der Aa using garnets collected and faceted by Todd Wacks, it contains 22 rhombic dodecahedrons encasing the precious stones; the garnet’s type and locality are imprinted on each link. Photos by Robert Weldon; courtesy of Mary van der Aa Fine Jewels and Tucson Todd’s Gems.

Printing is by L+L Printers, Carlsbad, CA.

GIA World Headquarters
The Robert Mouawad Campus
5345 Armada Drive
Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA

© 2024 Gemological Institute of America
All rights reserved.
ISSN 0016-626X


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Manuscript Submissions

Gems & Gemology, a peer-reviewed journal, welcomes the submission of articles on all aspects of the field. Please see the Author Guidelines at or contact the Managing Editor ( Letters on articles published in G&G are also welcome. Please note that Field Reports, Lab Notes, Gem News International, Micro-World, Colored Stones Unearthed, Diamond Reflections, Charts, and In the Spotlight are not peer-reviewed sections but do undergo technical and editorial review.

Copyright and Reprint Permission

Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limits of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons. Instructors are permitted to reproduce isolated articles and photographs/images owned by G&G for noncommercial classroom use without fee. Use of photographs/images under copyright by external parties is prohibited without the express permission of the photographer or owner of the image, as listed in the credits. For other copying, reprint, or republication permission, please contact the Managing Editor (

Gems & Gemology is published quarterly by the Gemological Institute of America, a nonprofit educational organization for the gem and jewelry industry.

Any opinions expressed in signed articles are understood to be opinions of the authors and not of the publisher.