Historical Reading List: Diamond and Carbonado from Brazil (Part 2)


Black and white illustration of 3167 carat carbonado "Sergio"
An illustration of the 3167-carat piece of carbonado discovered near Lençóis in Bahia in 1895. The sample, named the “Sergio”, represents the largest piece of natural diamond ever found. The illustration appeared in a short article on this sample by Henri Moissan in La Nature, Vol. 23, No. 1166, p. 304 (1895). 

Although the exact year is uncertain, the accepted discovery of diamonds in Brazil is thought to have occurred some time between 1710 and 1730 (the date of the official announcement is 1729).  For the next 150 years, the country was the world’s major source of diamonds until they were found in southern Africa in 1867.  The initial discovery of diamonds took place in the state of Minas Gerais; subsequently, they were also found in several other widely separated regions of the vast country (principally in the states of Bahia, Goiás and Mato Grosso).  The diamond crystals occur either loose in rivers and alluvial sediments, or they are embedded in sedimentary rocks (such as conglomerates) of different geological ages.  Some kimberlite pipes are now known, but none so far has been shown to be an important diamond host rock.  The lack of a primary host rock in these deposits has resulted in differing geological theories of the original diamond source. Brazil has produced both large diamond crystals, as well as the opaque, polycrystalline diamond material known as carbonado.  Although not a major supplier today, the country continues to produce diamonds three centuries after their first discovery.  The search for diamonds, gold and other valuable natural products was a major driving force for the exploration and colonisation of the interior of the country in the 17th and 18th centuries.

HOW TO USE THIS READING LIST

This reading list was compiled to give you an opportunity to learn more about the history of diamond and carbonado from Brazil. A number of the articles in this list were published in the 1800s and early 1900s — when many classical gem deposits of historical importance were discovered — and gemmology and mineralogy became sciences. The list is presented in chronological order to emphasise the development of ideas over time. The list is not comprehensive, but a compilation of some interesting gemmological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked.  Because of the length, the list is divided into publications before and after 1900.

Many of the articles exist in the public domain and can be found online at digital libraries such as Hathitrust, Internet Archive or other digital repositories. More recent publications can often be found in libraries, including the Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library. Abstracts of these articles can usually be found on the website of the original journal or magazine, and the article itself is often available for purchase from the publisher.

Regarding the GIA library’s holdings and on-site access, please contact the GIA library in Carlsbad.
  
L’Industrie des Diamants Noirs [The Black Diamond Industry], P. Truchot, Revue de Chimie Industrielle, Vol. 11, No. 121, pp. 19-21 (1900). A discussion of industrial carbonado.
 
In the Diamond Country of Brazil, J.C. Grant, Wide World Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 36, pp. 609-614 (1901). The author describes the hunt for carbonado diamond in the state of Bahia.
 
La Region Diamantifere et l'Extraction du Diamant [The Diamond Region and the Extraction of Diamond], A. d’Assier, L'Amerique: Choix de Lectures de Geographie, pp. 524-529 (1901).  The author discusses the occurrence and recovery of diamonds in the country.
 
The Diamond Deposits of Salobro, Brazil, F. de Paula-Oliveira, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 72, No. 20, pp. 635-636 (1901).  The author describes an alluvial diamond area that had been found in 1881.
 
Brazilian Diamonds and Carbons, Author unknown, Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 50, No. 2608, pp. 928-930 (1902). A brief review is presented of the mining methods used in Bahia to recover both diamond and carbonado.  A similar article was published in the Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 54, No. 1406, pp. 22537-22538 (1902). 
 
Diamond and Carbon Production in Bahia, Author unknown, Monthly Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 1339-1343 (1902).  A review of the diamond and carbonado industry in Bahia.
 
Gites Diamantifères du Brésil [Diamond Deposits of Brazil], L. Cugnin, Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société de l’Industrie Minérale, Series 4, Vol. 3, pp. 247-264 (1904). A description including photographs is given of diamond mining operations.
 
Lavras Diamantinas [Diamond Mines], O.A. Derby, Revista do Instituto Geographico e Historico da Bahia, Vol. 11, No. 30, pp. 143-153 (1904). The geological setting of the diamond mines in Bahia is described.
 
Das Geschaft mit Diamanten im Staate Bahia [The Diamond Industry in the State of Bahia], Author unknown, Berichte über Handel und Industrie, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 690-694 (1905).  A report on the diamond industry.
 
The Bahia Diamond Fields, O.A. Derby, Brazilian Engineering and Mining Review, Vol. 2, pp. 163-165 (1905).  A brief description of the diamond-producing region of Bahia.
 
The Geology of the Diamond and Carbonado Washings of Bahia, Brazil, O.A. Derby and J.C. Branner, Economic Geology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 134-142 (1905).  A description is given of the geological setting of the alluvial diamond deposits in Bahia.  The article was summarised in Mining Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 153-155 (1906), and was reprinted in the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1906, No. 1753, pp. 215-221 (1907).
 
Os Primeiros Descobrimentos de Diamantes no Estado da Bahia [The First Discoveries of Diamonds in the State of Bahia], O.A. Derby, Revista do Instituto Geographico e Historico da Bahia, Vol. 12, No. 31, pp. 143-151 (1905). The historical record of diamond discoveries in Bahia is discussed by the author.
 
“The Romance of Mining”, A. Williams, C.A. Pearson Ltd., London (1905).  This book contains a chapter on diamond mining (pp. 132-153).
 
Ueber die Diamantlager im Westen des Staates Minas Geraes und die Angrenzenden Staates Sao Paulo und Goyaz, Brasilien [About the Diamond Deposits in Western Minas Geraes and the Adjacent States of Sao Paulo and Goyaz, Brazil], E. Hussak, Zeitschrift für Praktische Geologie, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 318-333 (1906). The author discusses the geological setting of the alluvial diamond deposits.
 
Portuguese Colonization in Brazil, A.G. Keller, Yale Review, Vol. 14 (February), pp. 374-410 (1906).  The author discusses the history of the colonisation of the country.
 
Diamonds and Carbons in Brazil, H.W. Furniss, Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 69, No. 9, pp. 272-280 (1906). The author, who served as United States Consul in Bahia, describes the mining of diamonds and carbonado. This article is summarised in Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 82, No. 18, p. 821 (1906).
 
Ueber die Sogenannten “Phosphat-Favas” der Diamondführenden Sande Brasiliens [On the So-called “Phosphate-Favas” of the Brazilian Diamond-bearing Sediments], E. Hussak, Zeitschrift für Mineralogie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 335-344 (1906). The alumino-phosphate minerals found as rounded pebbles in the diamondiferous sediments are described.
 
The Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil, O.A. Derby, Journal of Geology, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 374-401 (1906). A geological description is given of the mountainous region of Minas Gerais and Bahia that has been an important historical source of diamonds.  A similar article by this author appeared in the Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográphico de Sao Paulo, Vol. 12, pp. 40-61 (1907).
 
Diamond Mines of Salobro, Author unknown, Monthly Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 582 (1907). The Salobro mines are briefly described.
 
Black Diamonds – Their Origin, Production and Use, Author unknown, Mine and Quarry, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 64-69 (1907). The occurrence of carbonado in Bahia is discussed.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, G.E. Anderson, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 83, No. 25, p. 1188 (1907). The American consul-general in Rio de Janeiro gives a brief report on mining activities.
 
Brazilian Diamonds, Author unknown, Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 55, No. 2862, p. 1054 (1907). A brief mention of diamonds from Bahia is given.  A similar note appeared in the Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 95, No. 2450, p. 24 (1907).
 
Brazilian Diamond Mining, Author unknown, Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 56, No. 2903, pp. 815-816 (1908). A brief discussion of diamond mining in Minas Gerais is presented.
 
Diamond Dredging in Brazil, G.R. Young, Mining World, Vol. 29, No. 17, p. 640 (1908). A brief report is given by an engineer who constructed a diamond dredge near Diamantina.
 
Les Gites Diamantifères du Brésil [The Diamond Deposits of Brazil], G. du Heller, Le Cosmos, Vol. 58, No. 1209, pp. 350-351 (1908).  A brief history of alluvial diamond mining in Brazil is presented.
 
Brazil, J.P.W. Rowe, United States Consular Reports, Vol. 86, No. 329, pp. 127-129 (1908).  A report on diamond and carbonado mining in the country.  A similar report by this author appeared in the Mineral Industry, Vol. 16, pp. 146-148 (1908).
 
The Diamond-Bearing Highlands of Bahia, J.C. Branner, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 87, No. 20, pp. 981-986 and No. 21, pp. 1029-1033 (1909). The author was an expert on the geology of Brazil.  He describes the geological setting of the alluvial diamond deposits, and the mining methods used.
 
The Trail of the Diamond, F. Clarkin, Everybody’s Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 161-172 (1909).  The author discusses diamond deposits including those in Brazil.
 
Diamonds and their Bearing upon the Future of Brazil, Author unknown, Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 229-255 (1909).  Following some general information on diamond, this article reviews the occurrences and mining of diamonds in Brazil.  A summary of this article appeared in the American Review of Reviews, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 486-488 (1909).
 
The Diamond Fields of Brazil, H. Pearson, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 58, No. 2978, pp. 101-129 (1909). The author gives a general review of the diamond-mining areas in the interior of the country.
 
Bibliography of the Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Brazil, J.C. Branner, Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 20, pp. 1-132 (1909).  An extensive listing of published geological references on Brazil.
 
The Diamantina District of Minas Gerais, G.W. Lindsay, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 87, No. 17, p. 856 (1909). A brief description of the diamond mining district.
 
“Brazil in 1910”, J.C. Oakenfull, White Stevens, Plymouth (1910). This book contains a section on the diamond-producing areas of the country (pp. 201-212).
 
Memorias do Districto Diamantino da Comarca do Serro Frio [Memoir on the Diamantina District in the County of Serro Frio], J.F. dos Santos, Revista do Archivo Público Mineiro, Vol. 14, 438 pp. (1910).  A report on the Diamantina region of Minas Gerais.
 
Outline of the Geology of the Black Diamond Region of Brazil, J.C. Branner, Report of the 12th Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. 12, pp. 324-328 (1910). A review is presented of the geological settings of the diamond occurrences, and ideas on diamond formation.
 
Materialien zur Geschichte des Brasilianischen Bergbaus [Material on the History of the Brazilian Mining Industry], F. Freise, Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, Vol. 2, pp. 425-472 (1910).  The author discusses the history of mining for diamonds and other minerals.
 
Prospecting for “Black Diamonds”, A.S. Atkinson, Mines and Minerals, Vol. 30 (June), pp. 644-645 (1910).  A short article on carbonado exploration.  A similar article appeared in the same journal in Vol. 32 (July), pp. 732-733 (1912).
 
The Minerals Associated with Diamonds and Carbonados in the State of Bahia, Brazil, E.W. Berry, American Journal of Science, Series 4, Vol. 31, No. 186, pp. 480-490 (1911). The author tabulates the minerals found associated with diamond at several localities.
 
The Diamond-Bearing Deposits of Bagagem and Agua Suja in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, D. Draper, Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 14, pp. 8-19 (1911). The western portion of Minas Gerais, which has been an important source of diamonds for nearly three centuries, is discussed by the author.
 
A Notable Brazilian Diamond, O.A. Derby, American Journal of Science, Series 4, Vol. 32, No. 189, pp. 191-194 (1911). A description of a 175-carat diamond, named Estrella de Minas (Star of Minas) found in the Bagagem River district in Minas Gerais.
 
The Geography of North-Eastern Bahia, J.C. Branner, Geographical Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 139-152, and No. 3, pp. 256-269 (1911).  The author reviews the geography of the portion of the state of Bahia which contains the diamond district.
 
Brasilianische Diamanten und ihre Gewinnung [Brazilian Diamonds and their Recovery], F. Freise, Technische Monatshefte, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 194-196 and 198 (1912). The occurrence and methods of recovery of Brazilian diamonds are described.
 
Las Estrellas Subterráneas [Subterranean Stars], R. de Sanabria, América – Industrias Americanas, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 50-53 (1913). General information on diamond sources and famous diamonds is presented.
 
Brazilian Carbons, J.K. Smit, Mines and Minerals, Vol. 32, (July), 732-733 (1912).  A short description of carbonado.
 
L'Outillage Diamante, et l'Emploi des Pierres de Grande Dureté dans la Mecanique de Precision [Diamond Tools, and the Employment of Very Hard Stones in Precision Mechanics], J. Escard, Revue de Mecanique, Vol. 33, pp. 276-287 (1913).  A discussion of the use of carbonado in cutting tools.
 
Analogies between the Diamond Deposits of Brazil and South Africa, D. Draper, Mining Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 435-436 (1913). A brief comparison is made of the diamond-bearing rocks in both countries.
 
Au Pays dee Carbone Amorphe (Carbonato) [In the Country of Amorphous Carbon (Carbonado)], P. Serre, Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 133-136 (1913). The author discusses the occurrence and exploitation of carbonado from Bahia.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, Author unknown, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 108, No. 2808, pp. 806-807 (1914). A summary of mining activity is presented.
 
The Geology of Central Minas Gerais, Brazil (Part 2), E.C. Harder and R.T. Chamberlin, Journal of Geology, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 412-424 (1915). In this discussion of the geology of Minas Gerais, a section on the diamond deposits is included.
 
Mineral Resources of Minas Gerais (Brazil), A.F. Calvert, E. and F.N. Spon Publishers, London (1915). This book contains a section on the diamond-producing regions of the country (pp. 74-86).
 
Zur Geologie der Diamanten führenden Gebiete Brasiliens [On the Geology of the Diamond-Bearing Areas of Brazil], E. Rimann, Zeitschrift für Praktische Geologie, Vol. 23, pp. 168-169 (1915).  A brief discussion of the geological setting of the diamond deposits is presented.
 
Studies of Brazilian Favas, O.C. Farrington, American Journal of Science, Series 4, Vol. 41, No. 244, pp. 355-360 (1916). Chemical analysis of the minerals, found as rolled pebbles along with the alluvial diamonds and called “favas”, show them to be hydrated oxides containing phosphorus, aluminium and other metals.
 
The Mining Industry of Brazil, F.L. Garrison, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 114, No. 10, pp. 329-333 (1917). A general review is presented of the mining industry, including a discussion of diamond mining.
 
Ueber die Muttergestein der Diamanten Brasiliens [On the Mother Rock of the Brazilian Diamonds], E. Rimann, Zeitschrift für Mineralogie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Vol. 34, No. 5/6, pp. 255-261 (1917).  The author discusses the source rock of the Brazilian diamonds.
 
Notes on the Geology of the Diamond Region of Bahia, Brazil, R. Crandall, Economic Geology, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 220-244 (1919). A discussion is presented on the geological setting of the Bahia diamond deposits.
 
“The Mineral Deposits of South America”, B.L. Miller and J.T. Singewald, McGraw-Hill Publishers, New York (1919). In this review of mineral deposits, the occurrences of diamond and other gem minerals in Brazil are discussed (pp. 207-215).
 
A Historical Sketch of the Development of Mining in Brazil, T.H. Lee, Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 22, pp. 196-220 (1919).  The author reviews the history of mining in the 17th and 18th centuries.
 
Photos of the Diamond Fields at Bahia, Brazil, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 108, No. 7, pp. 272-273 (1919).
 
Diamonds and Carbonado in Brazil, A. Russan, Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal, Vol. 96, No. 438, pp. 311-312 (1919). A note on Brazilian diamonds.
 
“Brazil – Past, Present and Future”, J.C Oakenfull, John Bale Sons & Danielsson, London (1919). This book reviews the history and natural resources of the country, including a chapter on diamonds (pp. 486-515).
 
The High-Level Diamond-Bearing Deposits of Brazil, D. Draper, Revista de Sciencias, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-11 and No. 2, pp. 33-45 (1920). The diamond deposits in the Espinhaço Mountains in Minas Gerais are described. A summary of the article in the Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 23, pp. 43-51 (1920); and in Mining Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 372-375 (1921).  From field evidence, the author concludes these secondary deposits originated from weathered primary kimberlite pipes just as in South Africa.
 
The Diamond Fields of Brazil, Author unknown, The South American, Vol. 8, No. 12, p. 13 (1920). A brief description is given of the area around Diamantina.
 
Jazidas de Diamante do Salobro [The Salobro Diamond Deposits], E.P. de Oliveira, Revista de Sciencias, Vol. 4, No. 4/6, pp. 131-135 (1920). A description is given of a historical diamond deposit in Bahia.
 
Sur la Nature du Conglomérat Diamantifère de Diamantina (Brésil) [On the Nature of the Diamond-Bearing Conglomerate from Diamantina (Brasil)], H.A. Brouwer, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Vol. 171, No. 7, pp. 402-404 (1920). The character of the diamondiferous conglomerate is briefly discussed.
 
The Gold and Diamond Country of Brazil, F. Provost, Pan-American Magazine, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 286-291 (1920). General information on the diamond-producing areas of the country, and a mention of large diamonds having been found, are mentioned in this article.
 
The Existence of Diamond-Bearing “Pipes” in Brazil, R.R. Walls, Geological Magazine, Vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 447-449 (1920). A discussion of field evidence for the presence of kimberlite pipes in the country.
 
Brazil as a Mining Country, G.A. Packard, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 112, No. 2, pp. 45-52 (1921). The author reviews the mining history and potential of the country.
 
In the Diamond Fields of Brazil, H.A. Franck, Century Magazine, Vol. 102, No. 5, pp. 759-768 (1921). The author describes the history of the diamond deposits in Minas Gerais.
 
The High-Level Diamond Deposits of Brazil, A.M. Pontie, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 122, No. 12, pp. 397-398 (1921). The author briefly discusses the diamond deposits found along the rivers in the higher elevation portions of Minas Gerais. The article also appeared in Chemical News, Vol. 122, No. 3172, pp. 38-39 (1921).
 
The Bandeirantes: Their Deeds and their Descendants, A. de Galvão-Bueno, Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Vol. 54 (May), pp. 456-480 (1922). Much of the exploration and development of the country resulted from the efforts of bandeirantes beginning in about 1628.  Bandeirantes were members of bandeiras, or roving bands of explorers, prospectors and Indian slavers originating principally in the frontier settlement of São Paulo.  During expeditions that could last several years, these groups explored much of the interior of southern Brazil.  In this article, the author discusses the lasting consequences of these expeditions for the development of the country.
 
Ouro Preto – The Old Capital of Minas Gerais, Brazil, F.H. Dodge, Pan-American Magazine and New World Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 29-38 (1922). The author reviews the history of this important colonial mining town which today is a world-heritage protected site.
 
Truth About the Diamontina District, M.E. Bascom, The Keystone, Vol. 50, No. 8, pp. 163-165 (1923). A report by two geologists on their trips to Minas Gerais.
 
Additional Evidence Regarding the Origin of the High-Level Diamond-Bearing Breccias of Diamantina, Brazil, D. Draper, South African Mining and Engineering Journal, Vol. 33, Pt. 2, No. 1635, p. 553 and No. 1636, pp. 588-589 (1923). A discussion of evidence is presented on the origin of the alluvial diamonds found near Diamantina. The same article appeared in the Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, Vol. 26, pp. 7-12 (1923).
 
Ueber die Struktur des "Schwarzen Diamants" [On the Structure of Black Diamonds], W. Gerlach, Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, Vol. 137, No. 1, pp. 331-332 (1924).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
The Brazilian Rush for Diamonds or Death, Author unknown, Literary Digest, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 45-46 (1928). This brief article describes the work of the artisanal diamond diggers, or garimpeiros, in their search for new deposits.
 
How Diamonds are Mined in Brazil, Author unknown, The Jewelers’ Circular, Vol. 95 (12 January), p. 37 (1928).  A diorama model of an alluvial diamond mine had been installed in the Commercial Museum in Philadelphia.
 
The Upland Diamond Deposits of the Diamantina District, Minas Gerais, Brazil, L.S. Thompson, Economic Geology, Vol. 23, No. 7, pp. 705-723 (1928).  Article not seen.
 
Gems that Work for a Living: Black Diamonds, the Most Precious Stones on Earth, put to Industrial Uses, O.H. Kneen, Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 112, No. 1, pp. 33 and 132-133 (1928).  A discussion of the industrial uses of carbonado.
 
Upland Diamond Deposits, Diamantina District, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Discussion, D. Guimaraes, Economic Geology, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 444-447 (1929). Article not seen.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, S.H. Ball, Jewelers’ Circular, Vol. 99, No. 11, pp. 37-40 (1929). The author, a mining geologist, gives some interesting historical information on the mining of diamonds.
 
Historical Notes on Diamond Mining in Minas Gerais, Brazil, S.H. Ball, Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 10, No. 270, pp. 282-285 (1929). A review of the history of diamond mining is given.
 
Considérations sur les Gisements de Diamants du Brésil [Considerations regarding the Diamond Deposits of Brazil], A.P.L Bétim, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, Vol. 52, pp. 51-55 (1929).  General information on the Brazilian deposits is summarised.
 
The Diamond Deposits on the Upper Araguaya River, Brazil, W.F. Freise, Economic Geology, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 201-207 (1930). Article not seen.
 
Brazil’s Natural Monopoly – The Carbonado, W.N.P. Reed, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 130, No. 6, pp. 289-293 (1930). General information on the carbonado industry is presented.
 
Brazil’s Black Diamonds, Author unknown, Literary Digest, Vol. 100, No. 11, pp. 29-30 (1930). Information is presented on carbonado diamonds.
 
The Diamond-Bearing Region of Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, L.J. de Moraes and D. Guimaraes, Economic Geology, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 502-530 (1931). Article not seen.
 
The Structure of Some Industrial Diamonds, J. Alexander, Science, Vol. 73, No. 1885, pp. 185-186 (1931).  A comparison of diamond, carbonado and ballas.
 
The King of the Black Diamonds, Author unknown, Popular Mechanics, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 94-987 (1931).  An article on recovering carbonado in Brazil.
 
Placer Diamond Mining in Brazil, W.B. Stanley and B.E. Anderson, Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 13, No. 307, pp. 313-314 (1932). The authors briefly discuss placer diamond mining.
 
Mining Black Diamonds in Brazil, D.M. Anderson, Compressed Air Magazine, Vol. 38 (August), pp. 4195-4198 (1933). The mining of carbonado is discussed.
 
Diamond Production and Fields in Brazil, Author unknown, Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 139-142 (1933).  A short article on the diamond fields.
 
Diamantina – First Diamond Center of Brazil, Author unknown, Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 86-100 (1933).  The role of Diamantina in the development of the diamond fields.
 
Note on the Structure of Carbonado or Black Diamond, C.R. Fettke and F.C. Sturges, American Mineralogist, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 172-174 (1933).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
The Star of the South, R.M. Shipley, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 1, No. 8, pp. 220-222 (1935). A note on a famous 128-carat Brazilian diamond.  A more recent article on this same diamond appeared in Gems & Gemology, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 54-64 (2002).
 
Diamante e Carbonado na Bahia [Diamonds and Carbonado of Bahia], O.H. Leonardos, Gemologia, Vol. 4, No. 14, pp. 1-20 (1937). Article not seen.
 
[O.A.] Derby on the Genesis of the Diamond, H.E. Williams, Economic Geology, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 351-354 (1938). Article not seen.
 
O Diamante “Minas Gerais” [The “Minas Gerais” Diamond], O. Barbosa, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 3, No. 14, p. 69 (1938). Note on a 172.5-carat rough diamond.
 
O Diamante “Presidente Vargas” [The “President Vargas” Diamond], V. Leinz, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 4, No. 21, pp. 185-186 (1939). Note on a 726.6-carat rough diamond found the previous year in Minas Gerais.  The same note appeared in the Sonder-Abdruck aus dem Zentralblatt für Mineralogie A, No. 4, pp. 99-102 (1939).
 
Diamante “Darcy Vargas” e outros Grandes Diamantes Brasileiros [The “Darcy Vargas” Diamond and other Large Brazilian Diamonds], O.H. Leonardos and R. Saldanha, Boletins de Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciência e Letras da Universidade de São Paulo, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 3-28 (1939). The authors describe the discovery in 1939 of a famous 460-carat diamond, and they provide information on a number of large diamonds found in Brazil in the previous two centuries.
 
The Diamonds of Brazil, A. Caplan, Mines Magazine, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 295-296 (1940). The author states that elevated regions of Brazil have produced over 15 million carats of diamonds since the early 1700s.  He briefly discusses the occurrence and mining of alluvial diamonds.  A similar article by the author appeared in the Natural History Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 268-271 (1942).
 
Three Large Brazilian Diamonds, E. Reis, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 82-84 (1940). A brief note on some large rough diamonds.
 
The Vargas Diamond, S.H. Ball and P.F. Kerr, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 135-136 (1941). A report on a 726.6-carat diamond found in 1938.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, A. Caplan, Jewelers’ Circular-Keystone, Vol. 112, No. 5, pp. 58, 60 and 63 (1942). A first-hand account of diamond mining is presented by the author based on his many trips to Brazil to buy gems and minerals.
 
Statistical Data and Remarks about some Brazilian Diamonds, E. Reis, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 55-56 (1942). The author summarises data on diamond production.
 
The Mineral Wealth of Brazil, S.F. Abreu, Geographical Review, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 222-246 (1946). Article not seen.
 
Brazilian Diamonds, E.G. Parser, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 24, 26, 28-29 (1949). General information is presented on diamonds from Brazil.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, T. Draper, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 231-242 (1949). The methods used for diamond mining are described.
 
The Origin and Distribution of Diamonds in Brazil, T. Draper, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 6, No. 10, pp. 298-306 (1950). The author discusses the geological setting of the deposits and ideas on the origin of the diamonds.
 
The Diamond Mines of Diamantina – Past and Present, T. Draper, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 49-57 and No. 3, pp. 89-98 (1951). The colonial town of Diamantina in central Minas Gerais is described; it was the centre of the diamond mining region in the 18th and 19th centuries.
 
Os Grandes Diamantes Brasileiros [Large Brazilian Diamonds], P.S. Moreira, Gemologia, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 5-12 (1955).  Information is presented on large diamonds found in Brazil.
 
Alguns Aspectos Históricos do Diamante no Brasil [Some Historical Aspects of Diamonds in Brazil], J.F. Junior, Gemologia, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 8-12 (1955).  The author discusses the history of diamond mining in Brazil.
 
Recursos Minerais do Triangulo Mineiro [Mineral Resources of the Triangulo Mineiro], O.H. Leonardos, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 24, No. 140, pp. 71-77 and No. 141, pp. 133-142 and No. 142, pp. 219-226 (1956).  A report on diamonds and other minerals in a region of Minas Gerais.
 
Les Diamants du Minas [The Diamonds of Minas], R. Teulières, Cahiers d’Outre-Mer, Vol. 9, No. 36, pp. 389-411 (1959).  Article not seen.
 
A Visit to Brazilian Diamond Locations, D. Parser, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 506-510 (1959). A description is given of a trip to the diamond-mining areas of Mato Grosso.
 
Os Grandes Diamantes Brasileiros [Large Brazilian Diamonds], E. Reis, Boletim de Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, No. 191, pp. 1-65 (1959). This bulletin presents details on many of the large diamonds found in Brazil.
 
Les Premiers Diamants du Brésil [The Large Diamonds of Brazil], F. Klein-Rebour, Revue Française des Bijoutiers Horlogers (March), pp. 74-76 (1963). The author briefly discusses some of the large diamonds found in Brazil.
 
Diamond Mining in Brazil, T. Draper, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 12-16 and No. 2, pp. 45-49 (1963). A discussion of diamond-mining methods is presented.
 
Zur Geologie der Sudlichen Espinhaco-Zone und ihrer Prakambrischen Diamantvorkommen, Minas Gerais, Brazil [The Geology of the Southern Espinhaco-Zone and its Precambrian Diamond Localities, Minas Gerais, Brazil], R. Pflug, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 115, No. 1, pp. 177-215 (1963).  A geological description of the southern Espinhaco Mountains that have been an important diamond-producing region.
 
La Chapada Diamantina Centrale (Bahia, Bresil) [The Central Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brazil)], J. Beaujeu-Garnier, Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français, Vol. 340/341, pp. 45-52 (1966).  A geographical description of the Chapada Diamantina, a historic diamond-producing region of Bahia.
 
732-Carat Pink Diamond is Found by Native in Brazil, P.H. Lindner, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 19, No. 11, pp. 1286-1287 (1966). Report on the discovery of a large rough pink diamond.
 
South America and the World Diamond Market, E.R. Miles, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 226-238 (1967). The author discusses the importance of Brazil, as well as Venezuela and Guyana, in terms of diamond production.
 
First Brazilian Diamond Dredge, A. Rolff, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 239-241 (1967). A brief mention is made of the operation of a large diamond dredge.
 
Modern Dredge Successful in Recovering Brazilian Diamonds, P.H. Lindner, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 298-305 (1967). The use of dredges to recover alluvial diamonds.
 
Diamonds in Minas Gerais, F.M. Bastos, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 1240-1250 (1968). General information on the diamonds from this part of Brazil.
 
Brazilian Diamond Field at Diamantina, A. Rolff, Rocks and Minerals, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 3-8 (1968).  The author describes diamond mining near Diamantina in Minas Gerais.
 
Brazilian Alluvial Minerals Found in Diamond-Bearing Gravels, A. Rolff, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 1272-1275 (1969). The minerals typically found in the diamondiferous gravels are discussed.
 
Carbonado: A Microstructural Study, L.F. Trueb and W.C. Butterman, American Mineralogist, Vol. 54, No. 3/4, pp. 412-425 (1969).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
Carbonado: Natural Polycrystalline Diamond, L.F. Trueb and C. de Wys, Science, Vol. 165, No. 3895, pp. 799-802 (1969).  The authors discuss the nature of this material.
 
Les Diamants de Diamantina (Minas Gerais – Brésil): Géologie et Exploitation [The Diamonds of Diamantina (Minas Gerais – Brazil); Geology and Exploration], J. Cassedanne, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 29, pp. 7-11 (1971). The author describes the typical diamonds found in the area near Diamantina.
 
Carbonado, a Diamond Variety of Nonkimberlitic Origin, Y.V. Fraantsesson and F.V. Kaminsky, Doklady Akademia Nauk SSSR - Earth Science Section, Vol. 219, No. 1, pp. 117-119 (1974).  The authors discuss how carbonado does not originate from kimberlite vulcanism, but has another origin.
 
Mineral Inclusions in Brazilian Diamonds, H.O.A. Meyer and D.P. Svisero, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 9, pp. 785-795 (1975). Mineral inclusions similar to those found in diamonds from other countries have been found in Brazilian diamonds including both ilmenite and zircon reported here for the first time.
 
As Principais Áreaa Diamantíferas do Brasil [The Principal Diamond-Bearing Regions of Brazil], R.R. Franco, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 39, No. 362, pp. 46-54 (1975). Article not seen.
 
Some Mineral Inclusions from African and Brazilian Diamonds: Their Nature and Significance, R.S. Mitchell, American Mineralogist, Vol. 62, No. 7/8, pp. 756-762 (1977).  A review of the types of mineral inclusions found in these diamonds.
 
O Diamante Princesa da Estrela do Sul [The Princess of the Star of the South Diamond], D.P. Svisero and N.L.E. Haralyi, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 42, No. 405, pp. 38-41 (1978). Report on an 82.25-carat diamond found in a placer of the Bagagem River in Minas Gerais in January 1977.
 
Kimberlites and Diamonds in Brazil: Windows to the Upper Mantle, H.O.A. Meyer and D.P. Svisero, Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 819-825 (1980).  A discussion of how kimberlitic rocks and diamonds provide important sources of information on the geological conditions in the upper mantle.
 
Geologia da Mina de Diamantes de Romaria, Município de Romaria, MG [Geology of the Romaria Diamond Mine, Municipality of Romaria (Minas Gerais)], D.P. Svisero, W.F. Filho and J.S. Almeida, Mineração e Metalurgia, Vol. 44, No. 430, pp. 4-14 (1981). A geological description is given of the Romaria mine, a locality that has been exploited for alluvial diamond for over a century.
 
The Microstructure of Natural Polycrystalline Diamond - Carbonado and Ballas, Y. Moriyoshi, M. Kamo, N. Setaka and Y. Sato, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 217-224 (1983).  A characterisation study of these two materials.
 
Oriented Enstatite Inclusions in Natural Diamond, C.R. Leite, N. Barelli and I.A. Sardela, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 48, No. 348, pp. 459-461 (1984). Study of some oriented mineral inclusions found in diamond crystals from the Tibagi River.
 
A Note on the Geology of Some Brazilian Kimberlites, D.P. Sivsero, H.O.A. Meyer, N.L.E. Haralyi and Y. Hasui, Journal of Geology, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 331-338 (1984). Although diamonds were known to occur in Brazil since the early 1700s, the first kimberlites were not recognised in the country until the 1960s. Some of the main kimberlite occurrences are discussed in this article.
 
Chercheurs de Diamant au Brésil [Searchers of Diamonds in Brazil], J. Cassedanne, Monde et Mineraux, No. 70, pp. 36-38 (1985). A review is presented of the efforts to find diamonds in the country.
 
Carbonado: Diamond Aggregates from Early Impacts of Crustal Rocks?, J.V. Smith and J.B. Dawson, Geology, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 342-343 (1985).  The authors discuss the idea that carbonado originates from the melting of crustal rocks resulting from meteorite impacts.
 
Origin of Polycrystalline Carbonado Diamond Aggregates, F.V. Kaminsky, Doklady Akademia Nauk SSSR - Earth Science Section, Vol. 294, No. 2, pp. 439-440 (1987).  A discussion of the origin of carbonado.
 
Diamonds in Brazil, J.P. Cassedanne, Mineralogical Record, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 325-336 (1989). A review is presented of the history of diamonds, the geological setting of their deposits and the mining methods used to recover them.
 
Diamonds in Brazil and a Proposed Model for the Origin and Distribution of Diamonds in the Coromandel Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, L.A. Tompkins and G.M. Gonzaga, Economic Geology, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 591-602 (1989). The authors suggest that the distribution of alluvial diamonds is related to three periods of glaciation in the geological past.
 
The Early Life and Geological Work of John Mawe (1766-1829) and a Note on His Travels in Brazil, H.S. Torrens, Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 267-271 (1992). The author gives a biographical sketch of the English mineral dealer whose book Travels in the Interior of Brazil (1812) provided one of the first eyewitness accounts of that country and the diamond-producing region.
 
The Portuguese Gem Trade in the Seventeenth Century, N. Vassallo e Silva, Jewellery Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 19-28 (1993).  A discussion of trade between Portugal and her colonies including Brazil.
 
The Origin of Diamonds in Western Minas Gerais, Brazil, G.M. Gonzaga, N.A. Teixeira and J.C. Gaspar, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 414-421 (1994). The western area of Minas Gerais has historically been the source of important alluvial diamond deposits and discoveries of large diamond crystals.  The alluvial deposits seem to have originated from glacial activity from a neighbouring area of the country.
 
Geology and Mineral Resources of Brazil: A Review, I. De Medeiros-Delgado, A.J. Pedreira and C.H. Thorman, International Geology Review, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 503-544 (1994). A review of the mineral wealth of the country is presented.
 
Diamonds from Minas Gerais, Brazil: An Update on Sources, Origin and Production, J. Karfunkel, M.L.S.C. Chaves, D.P. Svisero and H.O.A. Meyer, International Geology Review, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 1019-1032 (1994). The authors discuss the geological occurrence of alluvial diamonds, and the difficulty of establishing their exact origin.
 
Distribution and Origin of Diamonds in Brazil: An Overview, D.P. Svisero, Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 493-514 (1995). This article provides a review of the history, occurrence, mining of and ideas on the geological origin of diamonds in Brazil.
 
Prospecção e Economia do Diamante da Serra do Espinhaço [Prospecting and Economics of Diamonds in the Serra do Espinhaço], R. Fleischer, Geonomos, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 27-30 (1995). With the alluvial diamonds likely to become exhausted, the author discusses the possibility of new deposits being discovered.
 
Diamanten des Espinhaço-Gebirges (Minas Gerais, Brazil): Gemmologische und Ökonomische Folgen Geologischer Geschichte [Diamonds of the Espinhaço Mountains (Minas Gerais, Brazil): Gemmological and Economic Consequences of Geological History], J. Karfunkel, M.L.S.C. Chaves, A. Hoppe and A. Banko, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 113-128 (1996). A gemmological description of a set of alluvial diamonds is presented by the authors.
 
Sistemas Deposicionais da Chapada Diamantina Centro-Oriental, Bahia [Depositional System of the Central-Eastern Chapada Diamantina, Bahia], A.J. Pedreira, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 229-240 (1997). A geological study is given of the depositional environments for the sediments that host diamonds and carbonado in the Chapada Diamantina region.
 
Carbonado from the Lencois Region, Bahia State (Brazil): Mineral Inclusions, Physical Properties, Geochemical Features and Formation Conditions, A.I. Gorshkov, L.V. Bershov, S.F. Vinokurov, K.L. Oton, A.V. Sivtsov, A.V. Mokhov and E.O. Bogacheva, Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 229-236.  A study of the properties of carbonado and the geological setting of its occurrence in the Lencois region.
 
Carbonado: A Comparison between Brazilian and Ubangui Sources with other Forms of Microcrystalline Diamond based on Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes, D. Shelkov, A.B. Verkhovsky, H.J. Milledge and C.T. Pillinger, Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 332-340 (1997).  A comparison of carbonado from Brazil and the Central African Republic.
 
A Rift Model for the Sedimentary Diamond Deposits of Brazil, R. Fleischer, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 238-254 (1998). Based on a comparison between sedimentary deposits in seven regions of Brazil, a geological model for their formation is presented.
 
Microstructural Observations of Polycrystalline Diamond: A Contribution to the Carbonado Conundrum, S. De, P.J. Heaney, R.B. Hargraves, E.P. Vicenzi and P.T. Taylor, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 164, No. 3/4, pp. 421-433 (1998).  A study of the microstructure of carbonado as evidence of its conditions of formation.
 
Sobre a Polêmica da Origem do Diamante na Serra do Espinhaço (Minas Gerais): Un Enfoque Mineralógico [The Polemic Origin of the Diamond in the Serra do Espinhaço (Minas Gerais): A Mineralogical View], M.L.S.C. Chaves, J. Karfunkel and D.P. Svisero, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 285-294 (1998). The origin of the alluvial diamonds in the Espinhaço Mountains has been debated for nearly two centuries.  A study of the diamonds and other minerals in the sediments suggest the diamonds originated outside of the depositional basis where they are now found.
 
Incerteza e Combinação de Evidências: A Questão dos Diamantes do Rio Tibagi – PR (Brasil) [Uncertainties and Combination of Evidences: The Question of Diamond of the Tibagi River – Paraná, (Brazil)], P.C. Soares and L.C. Perdoncini, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 307-312 (1999). The authors evaluate geological evidence for the origin of the alluvial diamonds in the Tibagi River.
 
O Diamante na Bacia do Rio Santa Rosa, Tibagi (PR) [Diamonds of the Santa Rosa Basin, Tibagi (Paraná)], L.C. Perdoncini and P.C. Soares, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 299-306 (1999). The geological setting of several alluvial diamond occurrences within this basin is discussed.
 
Geologia da Regiao Diamantifera de Grao Mogol, Minas Gerais [Geology of the Grao Mogol Diamondiferous Region, Minas Gerais], M.L.S.C. Chaves, J. Karfunkel and J. Addad, Geociências, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 129-155 (1999).  Article not seen.
 
Microstructure of Tough Polycrystalline Natural Diamond, J.H. Chen and G. Van Tendeloo, Journal of Electron Microscopy, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 121-129 (1999).  A characterisation of this material.
 
The Source of the Espinhaço Diamonds: Evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb Zircon Ages of the Sopa Conglomerate and Pb-Pb Zircon Evaporation Ages of Metavolcanic Rocks, M.L.S.C. Chaves, T.M. Dussin and Y. Sano, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 265-269 (2000).  Age dating of the rocks that host some alluvial diamonds.
 
Die Mineralogie und Gemmologie der Diamanten aus der Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brasilien [Mineralogy and Gemmology of the Diamonds from the Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil], A. Banko and J. Karfunkel, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 127-150 (2000).  A description is given of the properties of a selection of alluvial diamonds.
 
Illusive Gems: The Disappearance of Diamonds from Goias, E. Pijning, Revista de História, Vol. 5, No. 1/2, pp. 11-23 (2000).  The author discusses legal and contraband mining of alluvial diamonds in the 18th century in Goias.
 
Magnetic Properties of Aggregate Polycrystalline Diamond: Implications for Carbonado History, G. Kletetschka, P.T. Taylor, P.J. Wasilewski and H.G.M. Hill, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 181, No. 3, pp. 279-290 (2000).  A characterisation study and a discussion of the origin of carbonado.
 
500 Years of Mining in Brazil: A Brief Review, I.F. Machado and S.F. de M. Figueirôa, Resources Policy, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 9-24 (2001). The authors review the history of mining over several centuries including the efforts to find and recover diamonds.
 
Tipologia dos Depósitos Diamantíferos da Serra do Espinhaço e Adjacências em Minas Gerais: Uma Síntese dos Conhecimentos [Types of Diamond-Bearing Deposits in the Espinhaço Range (Minas Gerais): A Synthesis], M.L.S.C. Chaves and J. Karfunkel, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 479-488 (2001). A review is given of one of the important diamond-producing areas of the country.
 
Morphology and Surface Features of Diamonds from the Juina Kimberlite Province, Brazil, D.P. de Araujo, J.C. Gaspar and L.A. Bizzi, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 605-614 (2001). A study of the morphology and appearance of rough diamonds from the Juina area.
 
Origem dos Depósitos Diamantíferos de Jequitaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil [Origin of the Diamond Deposits of Jequitai, Minas Gerais, Brazil], U.C. Penha and N. Angeli, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 427-432 (2001).  A geological field study of the diamond deposits in the Jequitai region.
 
Superdeep Diamonds from the Juina Area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, F.V. Kaminsky, O.D. Zakharchenko, R. Davies, W.L. Griffin, G.K. Khachatryan-Blinova and A.A. Shiryaev, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 140, No. 6, pp. 734-753 (2001).  Alluvial diamonds from the Juina area can contain an unusual set of inclusion minerals that formed under ultra-high pressures, which suggest the diamonds originated at greater depths (~ 670 km) than the much more common diamonds which formed in the subcontinental lithosphere (at depths of less than 200 km).
 
Diamonds from the Espinhaço Range (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and Their Redistribution Through the Geologic Record, M.L.S.C. Chaves, J. Karfunkel, A. Hoppe and D.B. Hoover, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 277-289 (2001). The authors review the sequence of formation of the alluvial diamond deposits over geological time.
 
O Supergrupo Espinhaço em Minas Gerais e Bahia: Correlações Estratográficas, Conglomerados Diamantíferos e Evoluçáo Geodinâmica [The Espinhaço Supergroup in Minas Gerais and Bahia: Stratigraphic Correlations, Diamond-Bearing Conglomerates and Geodynamic Evolution], A. Uhlein and M.L.S.C. Chaves, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 433-444 (2001). A geological field study of the alluvial diamond deposits.
 
Depósitos Diamantíferos Garimpáveis das Lavras Diamantinas, BA: A Geologia do Olhar Garimpeiro [Diamond Deposits of the Lavras Diamantinas, Bahia: Geology from the Garimpeiro Viewpoint], M.C. Nolasco, R.A. Medeiros and A.M. Oliveira, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 457-470 (2001). The geology of this region in Bahia, one of the most important producers following 1842, is discussed.
 
Origem dos Diamantes da Serra do Espinhaço Meridional: O Exemplo do Distrito Diamantíferas do Sopa-Guinda (Diamantina – MG) [Origin of Diamonds of the Southern Espinhaço Range: An Example of the Diamond District of Sopa-Guinda (Diamantina – Minas Gerais)], P.A. Almeida-Abreu and F.E. Renger, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 511-520 (2001). A geological field study of diamond-producing areas near Diamantina.
 
Considerações sobre a Origem do Carbonado no Brasil [Considerations on the Origin of Carbonado in Brazil], N.L.E. Haralyi and R.A. Schultz-Güttler, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 547-554 (2001). The enigmatic origin of carbonado diamond is discussed.
 
Diamonds from the Coromandel Area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, F.V. Kaminsky, O.D. Zakharchenko, G.K. Khachatryan and A.A. Shiryaev, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 583-596 (2001).  Characteristics of over one thousand rough diamonds from the Coromandel area are summarised.
 
Chemical Heterogeneity in Carbonado, an Enigmatic Polycrystalline Diamond, S. De, P.J. Heaney, E.P. Vicenzi and J. Wang, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 185, No. 3/4, pp. 315-330 (2001).  A characterisation study undertaken to understand the origin of carbonado.
 
Diamond Exploration: Fundamentals and Opportunities in South America, L.A. Bizzi, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 631-634 (2001). The author discusses how the development of diamond mining from kimberlite pipes will change the focus of diamond exploration in Brazil.
 
Mineralogy, Composition of Inclusions, and Cathodoluminescence of Carbonado from Bahia State, Brazil, A.B. Makeev, W. Ivanuch, S.K. Obyden, G.V. Saparin, V.N. Filippov, Geology of Ore Deposits, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 87-102 (2002). Data are reported on Brazilian carbonado samples.
 
Ion Microprobe Pb-Pb Dating of Carbonado, Polycrystalline Diamond, Y. Sano, R. Yokochi, K. Terada, M.L. Chaves and M. Ozima, Precambrian Research, Vol. 113, No. 1/2, pp. 155-168 (2002).  Age dating of mineral inclusions in carbonado.
 
Interrelation of Diamond and Carbonado (Based on the Study of Collections from Brazil and Middle Timan), A.B. Makeyev, W. Iwanunch, S.K. Obyden, N.I. Bryanchaninova, P.V. Ivannikov and G.V. Saparin, Doklady Earth Sciences, Vol. 393A, No. 9, pp. 1251-1255 (2003).  A study of the genetic relationship of diamond and carbonado based on samples from Brazil and Siberia.
 
Diamantes do Médio Rio Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais: Qualificaçã o Gemológica e Análise Granulométrica [Diamonds from Mid-portion of the Jequitinhonha River: Gemmological Qualification and Granulometric Analysis], M.L.S.C. Chaves and L. Chambel, Revista Escola de Minas, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 267-275 (2004).  Statistical information is presented from alluvial deposits along this important river in Minas Gerais.
 
Diamond-bearing Superficial Deposits of the Diamantina Region (Minas Gerais), M.L.S.C. Chaves and L. Benitez, Geosciencias, Vol. 23, No. 1/2, pp. 31-42 (2004).  A geological field study of diamond deposits near Diamantina.
 
Diamante Variedade Carbonado na Serra do Espinhaço (MG/BA) e sua Enigmatica Genese [Diamond Variety Carbonado from the Serra do Espinhaço (Minas Gerais/Bahia) and its Engimatic Genesis], M.L.S.C. Chaves and P.R.G. Brandao, Revista da Escola de Minas, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 33-38 (2004).  A study of carbonado and its possible origin.
 
Chemical, Optical and Isotopic Investigation of Fibrous Diamonds from Brazil, A.A. Shiryaev, E.S. Izraeli, E.H. Hauri, O.D. Zakahrchenko and O. Navon, Russian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 46, No. 12, pp. 1207-1222 (2005). Some Brazilian diamond crystals have an opaque, fibrous coating of other minerals and microinclusions that contain geological fluids.  Analysis of these fluids provides information on the environment of diamond formation deep in the earth.
 
Characterization of Carbonado as a Gem, K. De Corte, Y. Kerremans, B. Nouven and R. Van Royen, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 5-22 (2004).  Study of carbonado as a gem material.
 
Diamondiferous Deposits in the Jequitai Area (Minas Gerais, Brazil): A Consequence of Neotectonic Processes, U.C. Penha, J. Karfunkel and N. Angell, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, Vol. 236, No. 1/2, pp. 207-224 (2005). The authors present results of a geological field study of the alluvial diamond deposits near Jequitai.
 
Lower Mantle Diamonds from Rio Soriso (Juina Area, Mato Grosso, Brazil), P.C. Hayman, M.G. Kopylova and F.V. Kaminsky, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 149, No. 4, pp. 430-445 (2005). Based on their unique mineral inclusions, diamonds from the Juina area are believed to have originated much deeper within the mantle than most gem diamonds.
 
First Pb-Pb Dating Results from Carbonado Diamonds from Chapada Diamantina (Bahia) and Jequitinhonha River (Minas Gerais), Espinhaço Range, M.L.S.C. Chaves, M.C. Geraldes, Y. Sano and L. Chambel, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 419-422 (2005).  Age dating of carbonado diamonds.
 
Strange Diamonds: The Mysterious Origins of Carbonado and Framesite, P.J. Heaney, E.P. Vicenzi and S. De, Elements, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 85-89 (2005).  A discussion of the various possible origins of carbonado.
 
Placer Diamonds from Brazil: Indicators of the Composition of the Earth’s Mantle and the Distance to their Kimberlitic Sources, R. Tappert, T. Stachel, J.W. Harris, K. Muehlenbachs and G.P. Brey, Economic Geology, Vol. 101, No. 2, pp. 453-470 (2006). Data are presented on alluvial diamonds from deposits in Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Roraima.
 
O “Certificado do Processo de Kimberley”: Proposta para Subsidiar sua Implementação em Bases Cientificas [The Kimberley Certification Process: A Proposal to Support its Implementation on a Scientific Basis], M.L.S.C. Chaves and L. Benitez, Geonomos, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 37-44 (2006).  In support of the requirements of the Kimberley certification process, the authors describe the characteristics of rough diamonds from major producing areas in Minas Gerais.
 
Ocorrência do Diamante na Bahia [Occurrence of Diamonds in Bahia], E. Pedreira de Cerqueira, Revista do Instituto Geográfico e Histórico da Bahia, Vol. 101, pp. 111-122 (2006). The author reviews the occurrence of diamonds and the history of mining in Bahia.
 
Pedra Rica Hill, Grão Mogol, State of Minas Gerais Brazil – First Worldwide Diamond Deposit Mined in a Rock, M.L.S.C. Chaves, L. Benitez and K.W. Andrade; in M. Winge et al., Geological and Palaeontological Sites of Brazil, pp. 1-9 (2006). In 1827, diamonds were found for the first time in a metaconglomerate – prior to that time they had only been found loose in alluvial gravels along streams and rivers.  The authors describe the historical locality near the town of Grão Mogol.
 
Magnetic Properties of Carbonado Diamonds, C.B. Fitzgerald, M. Venkatesan, A.P. Douvalis and J.M.D. Coey, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 300, No. 2, pp. 368-372 (2006).  A study of the magnetic behaviour of carbonado.
 
Diamond Rush, S.S. Patel, Archaeology, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 53-58 (2007). An archaeologist visits the historical diamond-mining areas of the Chapada Diamantina in Bahia.
 
The Occurrence of Micro-Diamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina Intrusive Rocks – Bahia / Brazil, G.S. Battilani, N.S. Gomes and W.J. Guerra, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 321-332 (2007). The origin of diamonds in the Espinhaço Mountains remains unknown, and the lack of typical indicator minerals in sediments makes a kimberlitic source of the alluvial diamonds uncertain.  The discovery of micro-diamonds in certain metamorphosed igneous rocks provides a new possibility for diamond mineralisation.
 
A Arte de Fabricar Motins: Os Marcos Regulatórios da Mineração Diamantífera em Perspectiva Histórica [The Art of Making Riots: The Regulatory Frameworks for Diamond Mining in a Historical Perspective], M.L. Martins, Geonomos, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 69-77 (2008). The author discusses the historical changes in Brazilian mining legislation and the evolving relations between diamond prospectors, landowners, mining enterprises and governments.
 
Província Diamantífera da Serra da Canastra e o Kimberlito Canastra-1; Primeira Fonte Primária de Diamantes Economicamente Viával do País [The Canastra Range Diamondiferous Province and the Canastra-1 Kimberlite: First Primary Economic Source of Diamonds in the Country], M.L.S.C. Chaves, K.W. Andrade, L. Benitez and P.R.G. Brandão, Geociências, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 299-317 (2008). The authors describe the first kimberlite district that contains economic deposits of diamonds.
 
The Canastra-1 Kimberlite (Sao Roque de Minas Town, MG): Geology, Mineralogy and Diamond Reserves, M.L.S.C. Chaves, P.R.G. Brandão, A.C. Girodo and L. Benitez, Revista da Escola de Minas, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 357-364 (2008).  A geological study of a diamond-bearing kimberlite.
 
Carbonado - Schwarzer Diamant - aus Minas Gerais, Brasilien: Geologisches Vorkommen und Uberlegungen zu seiner Entstehung [Carbonado – Black Diamond – from Minas Gerais, Brazil: Geological Occurrence and Considerations on its Formation], J. Karfunkel, V. Petrovsky, M.S. Martins, M.L.S.C. Chaves and R. Wegner, Der Aufschluss, No. 5, pp. 258-266 (2008).  A description of the occurrence of carbonado and a discussion of its conditions of formation.
 
Three Centuries of Diamonds: Preserving a Tradition in Brazil, B. Farrar, Rock & Gem, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 37-40 (2009). The author reviews the history of diamond mining in the country.
 
Large Brazilian Diamonds, D.B. Hoover and J. Karfunkel, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 23, No. 10, pp. 440-446 (2009). The authors highlight the discovery of large diamonds in the Alto Paranaiba region of Minas Gerais, and they include a list of 65 crystals over 50 carats in size.
 
The Failure of Good Intentions: Fraud, Theft and Murder in the Brazilian Diamond Industry, S.G. Blore, Partnership Africa Canada Occasional Paper, No. 12, pp. 1-32 (2009). The author discusses efforts to control the trade in illicit diamonds originating in Brazil.
 
Super-Deep Diamonds from Kimberlites in the Juina Area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, F.V. Kaminsky, G.K. Khachatryan, P. Andreazza, D. Araujo and W.L. Griffin, Lithos, Vol. 112, Supp. 2, pp. 833-842 (2009). Results of a study of approximately 1,300 hundred diamonds provide information on their chemical and physical properties as well as their unusual mineral inclusions.
 
The Carolina Kimberlite, Brazil - Insights into an Unconventional Diamond Deposit, L. Hunt, T. Stachel, R. Morton, H. Grütter and R.A. Creaser, Lithos, Vol. 112, No. 2, pp. 843-851 (2009).  Geological study of a kimberlite occurrence in Rondonia.
 
Unusual Micro- and Nano-Inclusions in Diamonds from the Juina Area, Brazil, R. Wirth, F. Kaminsky, S. Matsyuk and A. Schreiber, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 286, No. 1/2, pp. 293-303 (2009).  The unusual mineral inclusions indicate a possible super-deep origin for Juina diamonds.
 
The Carbonado Diamond Conundrum, G.J.H. McCall, Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 93, No. 3/4, pp. 85-91 (2009).  A discussion of the possible origins of carbonado.
 
Kimberlitic Sources of Super-Deep Diamonds in the Juina Area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, F.V. Kaminsky, S.M. Sablukov, E.A. Belousova, P. Andreazza, M. Tremblay and W.L. Griffin, Lithos, Vol. 114, No. 1/2, pp. 16-29 (2010).  A geological description is given of material from kimberlite pipes that presumably were the source of alluvial diamonds found in the Juina area.
 
“Minerals and Precious Stones of Brazil”, C. Cornejo and A. Bartorelli, Solaris Publications, São Paulo (2010). This book provides information on all types of gem materials from Brazil, including a lengthy chapter on diamonds (pp. 177-219).
 
The Gemstone Deposits of Brazil: Occurrences, Production and Economic Impact, S. de Brito-Barreto and S.M. Bretas-Bittar, Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 123-140 (2010). The authors review information on the important gemstone deposits of Brazil, including diamonds.
 
Morphology and Defects of Diamond Grains in Carbonado: Clues to Carbonado Genesis, V.A. Petrovsky, A.A. Shiryaev, V.P. Lyutoev, A.E. Sukharev and M. Martins, European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 35-47 (2010).  A characterisation study of carbonado's internal structure, undertaken to understand its origin.
 
A Half-Century Monopoly (1880-1930s): The Black Diamonds (Carbonados) of Bahia and Jewish Merchants, M.W. Herold and S. Rines, Revista Ciencias et Administrativas, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 13-54 (2011).  The author discusses the trade in Brazilian carbonado, which was of great industrial value because of its hardness.
 
Deep Mantle Cycling of Oceanic Crust: Evidence from Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions, M.J. Walter, S.C. Kohn, D. Araujo, G.P. Bulanova, C.B. Smith, E. Gaillou, J. Wang, A. Steele and S.B. Shirey, Science, Vol. 334, No. 6052, pp. 54-57 (2011).  Mineral inclusions in diamonds provide evidence of the recycling of oceanic crust deep into the mantle by crustal subduction.
 
Diamante de Tibagi no Paraná – Patrimônio Geológico-Mineiro e Cultural [Diamond from Tibagi in Paraná – Geological-Mining and Cultural Heritage], A. Liccardo, T.A. Barbosa and K.L. Hornes, Anuário do Instituto de Geociências, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 142-151 (2012). The Tibagi region is one of the oldest areas of gold and diamond mining in Brazil.  The authors discuss the heritage of mining in this part of the country.
 
A Mineração de Diamantes e a Administração Geral dos Terrenos Diamantinos: Minas Gerais, Décades 1830-1870 [Diamond Mining and the General Administration of the Diamonds Lands: Minas Gerais, Decades 1830-1870], M.L. Martins, Revista de História São Paulo, No. 167, pp. 129-163 (2012). The author reviews government efforts to regulate and inspect the diamond mines, and to minimise conflicts among miners groups and other players in the region around Diamantina.
 
Idades U-Pb em Zircão do Conglomerado Diamantífero de Grão Mogol (Supergrupo Espinhaço): Implicações para e Origem dos Diamantes da Serra do Espinhaço em Minas Gerais[U-Pb ages of Zircon of the Grão Mogol Diamond-Bearing Conglomerate (Espinhaço Supergroup): Implications for Diamond Origin in the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais], M.L.S.C. Chaves, M. Babinski, M.C. Rodriguez da Silva., and R. Scholz, Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 139-151 (2013).  Dating of detrital zircon grains from the sediments give a maximum depositional age for the diamond-bearing conglomerates of approximately 1.0 to 1.5 billion years ago.
 
A Extração de Diamantes na História Geológica e Mineral no Paraná [Diamond Extraction in the Mining and Geological History of Paraná], A. Liccardo and L.A. Chieregati, Boletim Paranaense de Geosciências, Vol. 70, pp. 166-179 (2013). The authors discuss the effects of diamond mining over the past 250 years on the scientific, economic and cultural history of the Paraná region.
 
Internal Texture and Syngenetic Inclusions in Carbonado, F.V. Kaminsky, R. Wirth and L. Moraales, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 39-56 (2013).  A study of inclusions and the internal structure in carbonado.
 
New Textural Evidence on the Origin of Carbonado Diamond: An Example of 3-D Petrography using X-ray Computed Tomography, R.A. Ketcham and C. Koeberl, Geosphere, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 1336-1347 (2013).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
Diamonds from the Coromandel Area, West Minas Gerais State, Brazil: An Update and New Data on Surface Sources and Origin, J. Karfunkel, D. Hoover, A.F. Fernandes, G.N.C. Sgarbi, K. Kambrock and G.D. Oliveira, Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 325-338 (2014).  The authors discuss the possible origin of the important diamond deposits near the town of Coromandel.
 
New Insights into Polycrystalline Diamond Genesis from Modern Nanoanalytical Techniques, D.E. Jacob, L. Dobrzhinetskaya and R. Wirth, Earth Science Reviews, Vol. 136, pp. 21-35 (2014).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
The Basal Conglomerate of the Capacete Formation (Mata da Corda Group) and its relation to Diamond Distributions in Coromandel, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, A.F. Fernandes, J. Karfunkel, D.B. Hoover, P.B. de Albuquerque-Sgarbi, G.N. Chaves-Sgarbi, G.D. Oliveira, J.C. de Souza Pereira-Gomes and K. Kambrock, Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 91-103 (2014). The Coromandel district is famous as the source of many of large diamonds over 100 carats in weight. Geological field study indicates that the basal conglomerate of the Capacete Formation is the main source rock of the alluvial diamond deposits.  This theory is further discussed by the authors in a separate article in the Brazilian Journal of Geology, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 325-338 (2014).
 
Carbonado: Physical and Chemical Properties, a Critical Evaluation of Proposed Origins, and a Revised Geologic Model, S.E. Haggerty, Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 130, pp. 49-72 (2014). The author discusses various ideas to explain the unusual physical properties and geographical occurrences of carbonado diamond.
 
Origin of Sub-Lithospheric Diamonds from the Juina-5 Kimberlite (Brazil): Constraints from Carbon Isotopes and Inclusion Compositions, A.R. Thomson, S.C. Kohn, G.P. Bulanova, C.B. Smith, D. Araujo and M.J. Walter, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 168, No. 6, Article 1081 (2014).  A characterisation study that provides additional evidence of the super-deep origin of diamonds from this kimberlite.
 
Surface Source of Coromandel Diamonds (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and Their Possible Origin from the Serra Negra/Salitre Supervolcano, J. Karfunkel, D.B. Hoover, A.F. Fernandes, G.N.C. Sgarbi, K. Kambrock, D. Walde and G. Michelfelder, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, Vol. 277, No. 2, pp. 237-250 (2015). Based on field observations, the authors suggest the possibility of the Serra Negra/Salitre igneous complex represents a portion of the remnants of an ancient supervolcano which, in turn, was the source of the alluvial diamonds in western Minas Gerais.
 
The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPSC) and Diamond Production Changes in Selected African Countries and Brazil, E.G. dos Santos, Revista Escola de Minas, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2015).  The author suggests that the requirements of the KPSC programme to control the export of legally mined diamonds have resulted in a decrease in diamond production in various countries including Brazil.
 
Mineralogical Characterization of Diamonds from Roosevelt Indigenous Reserve, Brazil, using Non-Destructive Methods, M.P.A.C. Borges, M.A. Moura, S.L.R. Lenharo, C.B. Smith and D.P. Araujo, Lithos, Vol. 265, pp. 182-198 (2016).  A characterisation study of alluvial diamonds from an area in Rondonia.
 
Carbonado Revisited: Insights from Neutron Diffraction, High-Resolution Orientation Mapping, and Numerical Simulations, S. Piazolo, F.V. Kaminsky, P. Trimby, L. Evans and V. Luzin, Lithos, Vol. 265, pp. 244-256 (2016).  A characterisation study of carbonado.
 
Diamonds from the Machado River Alluvial Deposit, Rondonia, Brazil: Derived from both Lithospheric and Sublithospheric Mantle, A.D. Burnham, G.P. Bulanova, C.B. Smith, S.C. Whitehead, S.C. Kohn, L. Gobbo and M.J. Walter, Lithos, Vol. 265, pp. 199-213 (2016).  A study of the geological source of alluvial diamonds from an area in Rondonia.
 
Carbonado Diamond: A Review of Properties and Origin, S.E. Haggerty, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 168–179 (2017). A discussion of the origin and physical properties of this polycrystalline diamond material.
 
Diamonds of the Alto Paranaiba, Brazil: Nixon's Prediction Verified?, D.B. Hoover, J. Karfunkel, L.C.B. Ribeiro, G. Michelfelder, R.A.V. Moraes, K. Krambrock, D. Quintao and D. Walde, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 26, No. 5/6, pp. 88-99 (2017).  The authors discuss the geological origin of alluvial diamonds from an area in Minas Gerais.
 
Brazilian Diamonds: A Historical and Recent Perspective, D.P. Svisero, J.E. Shigley and R. Weldon, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 2-33 (2017).  The authors discuss the historical mining of diamonds in Brazil, and they review current productive areas of the country.
 
The Alto Paranaiba Region, Brazil: A Continuing Source of Pink Diamonds?, D.B. Hoover, J. Karfunkel, D. Walde, R.A.V. Moraes, G. Michelfelder, F.E. Renger, L.C.B. Ribeiro, K. Krambrock and C.F. Glock, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 26, No. 9/10, pp. 196-204 (2018).  The authors discuss the recovery of pink diamonds from an area of Minas Gerais.
 
Texture and Genesis of Polycrystalline Varieties of Diamond Based on Phase-Contrast and Diffraction Contrast Tomography, A.A. Shiryaev, F.V. Kaminsky, W. Ludwig, D.A. Zolotov, A.V. Buzmakov and S.V. Titkov, Geochemistry International, Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 1015-1023 (2019).  A carbonado characterisation study.

Dr James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California.


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