Historical Reading List: Diamond and Carbonado from Brazil (Part 1)
August 5, 2020
Although the exact year is uncertain, the accepted discovery of diamonds in Brazil is thought to have occurred sometime between 1710 and 1730 (the date of the official announcement is 1729). For the next 150 years, the country was the world’s major source of diamonds until they were found in southern Africa in 1867. The initial find of diamonds took place in the state of Minas Gerais; subsequently, they were also found in several other widely separated regions of the vast country (principally in the states of Bahia, Goiás, and Mato Grosso). The diamond crystals occur either loose in rivers and alluvial sediments, or they are embedded in sedimentary rocks (such as conglomerates) of different geologic ages. Some kimberlite pipes are now known, but none so far has been shown to be an important diamond host rock. The lack of a primary host rock has in these deposits has resulted in differing geological theories of the original diamond source. Brazil has produced both large diamond crystals, as well as the opaque, polycrystalline diamond material known as carbonado. Although not a major supplier today, the country continues to produce diamonds three centuries after their first discovery. The search for diamonds, gold and other valuable natural products was a major driving force for the exploration and colonization of the interior of the country in the 17th and 18th centuries.
HOW TO USE THIS READING LIST
This reading list was compiled to give you an opportunity to learn more about the history of diamond and carbonado from Brazil. A number of the articles in this list were published in the 1800s and early 1900s — when many classical gem deposits of historical importance were discovered — and gemology and mineralogy became sciences. The list is presented in chronological order to emphasize the development of ideas over time. The list is not comprehensive, but a compilation of some interesting gemological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked. Because of the length, the list is divided into publications before and then after 1900.
Many of the articles exist in the public domain and can be found online at digital libraries such as Hathitrust, Internet Archive, or other digital repositories. More recent publications can often be found in libraries, including the Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library. Abstracts of these articles can usually be found on the website of the original journal or magazine, and the article itself is often available for purchase from the publisher.
Regarding the GIA library’s holdings and on-site access, please contact the GIA library in Carlsbad.
While the early 1700s is the generally accepted period when diamonds were first officially recognized in Brazil, there is one account that suggests they had been known at an earlier date.
Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes, S. Purchas (ed.), J. MacLehose and Sons, Glasgow, (1906), is a republication of the original set of volumes which appeared in 1625. In Volume 16, Chapter 7 is entitled “The Admirable Adventures and Strange Fortunes of Master Anthonie Knivet, who went with Master Thomas Ca(ve)ndish in his Second Voyage to the South Seas in 1591”. Thomas Cavendish was an English explorer and privateer, and his voyage was intended to reach China by way of the Strait of Magellan at the southern tip of South America, and then across the Pacific. Bad weather prevented passage through the strait, so Cavendish turned back and made his way up the coast of South America to raid Portuguese colonial holdings along the southern coast of Brazil. Anthonie Knivet, a gentleman member of the ship’s crew, developed frostbite while in the Strait, and he and several other sick men were left on the island of Illhabela just off the Brazilian coast between the present-day cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Knivet was captured by the Portuguese and was put to work as a slave on a sugar plantation. Escaping, he made his way inland where he came into contact with indigenous Indian tribes. Following many adventurers over several years, including traveling to Angola and the Congo in Africa, and then back to Brazil, Knivet made his way back to England in 1601. His memoir, published in 1625, is the earliest description of the interior of Brazil by an English speaker. On page 260 of Chapter 7, Knivet describes seeing “diamond crystals” while living with the Tamoyes Indians (although he does not tell how he knew what the crystals were). If accurate, this account predates by about 120 years the official date of discovery mentioned earlier. Further information on Anthonie Knivet can be found in the following article: The Knyvetts of Charlton: An Explorer in the Family, by R.F. Hitchcock, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, Vol. 88, pp. 82-90, (1982).
A Letter from Jacob de Castro Sarmento, M.D. and F.R.S., to Cromwell Mortimer, M.D. and Sec(retary) R.S., Concerning Diamonds lately Found in Brazil. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 37, No, 421, pp. 199-201, (1731). The secretary of the Royal Society provides a translation of an account by another individual, recently arrived in London from Brazil, of the occurrence of diamonds in the country. He described the efforts to find diamonds in the mountains of Minas Gerais, and stated that prospectors initially failed to recognize the transparent crystals to be of value:
- “The miners that digged gold in those places did turn up the ground and sands of the banks of the [Milho Verde] River [near Diamantina], to extract the gold therefrom, and by doing so they found several diamonds, which then they did not prize as such; for some of the miners kept several stones for their figure and curiosity, which stones (though so valuable) by length of time they neglected and lost, and did the same till the year 1728, at which time one of the miners lately coming to work there [who had been in Goa, India], and better acquainted, deemed them to be diamonds, made experiments on them, and finding them really so, began to seek for them in the same ground and sand, where the former miners had left them, so did the rest of the people follow his example.
Experience and common reason teaches the people there, that these diamonds came from another place by the current of the waters, and are not the natural product of the situation where they are now found. They are using all possible diligence to find out the place where they grow. They have not yet discovered it, but their great hopes are very much encouraged upon the account of having near the said situation several mountains, where nothing is to be seen but fine solid crystal rocks.”
“Materia Medica – Physico-Historico-Mechanica Reyno Mineral” [Materia Medica – Physical, Historical, Mechanical Mineral Kingdom], J. de Castro Sarmento, Part 1, Chapter 3, London, (1735). This book contains a section on diamonds (pp. 147-156), and a brief description of their occurrence in Brazil.
Nachricht von des Lord Ansons Reise um die Welt [Information on Lord Anson’s Voyage around the World], Unknown author, Hamburgisches Magazin, Vol. 3, pp. 459-485, (1752). Admiral George Anson lead a British naval squadron on a voyage around the world between 1740 and 1744 as part of his countries war with Spain. In late 1740, the squadron visited the southeastern coast of South America, and in the report of the voyage, Anson mentions the Brazilian diamond fields which, at the time, had been producing diamonds for shipment to Europe for about twenty years. A book entitled “A Voyage Around the World in the Years 1740 to 1744”, compiled from Anson’s original journals by R. Walter, was published in 1853.
“Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Établissements un du Commerce des Européens dans les Deux Indes” [Philosophical and Political History of the Establishment of Commerce between Europe and the Two Indies], G-T. Raynal, Vol. 3, Le Haye, (1744). This encyclopedia describes the development of trade between Europe and both the old and new world, and in this volume, information is presented on the discovery of the gold and diamond mines in Brazil (pp. 581-587).
“Briefe über Portugal, nebst einem Anhang über Brasilien” [Letters on Portugal, with an Appendix on Brazil], M.C. Sprengel, Leipzig, (1782). This book contains a section on the diamond mines (pp. 271-284).
“A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies”, J.O. Justamond, W. Strand and T. Cadell Publishers, London, Vol. 4, (1783). This book contains a chapter on the Portuguese colonization of Brazil (pp. 358-523) – the discovery and exploitation of diamonds is discussed on pages 474-486.
Über den Demant [About Diamond], J.E. von Bubna, Abhandlungen einer Privatgesellschaft in Böhmen, Vol. 6, pp. 112-128, (1784). An article on diamonds with information on the Brazilian deposits.
Mémoire sur les Diamans du Brésil [Memoir on the Diamonds of Brazil], J.B. de Andrada e Silva, Annales de Chimie, Series 1, Vol. 15, pp. 82-88, (1792). The author, a Brazilian naturalist and mineralogist, gives one of the first detailed descriptions of finding diamonds in the country. The article was also published in Magazin für das Neueste aus der Physik und Natureschichte, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 47-54, (1794). A summary of this report appeared in Observations et Mémoires sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle, et sur les Arts et Métiers, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 325-328, (1792), in the Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts, Vol. 1, pp. 24-26, (1797), and in The History of the Revolutions of Portugal, R.H. Vertot, Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, London, pp. 303-315, (1809). The latter version contained the following statement:
- "Antonio Soary, a Paulist, who gave his name to one of these mountains, was the first who discovered and visited the Sero DoFrio [Serra do Frio]. Gold only was sought for, but at last diamonds were discovered in the Riacho Fundo, whence they were first obtained, and afterwards in the Rio de Peire; a great number were likewise obtained from the Giguitignogna [Jequitinhonha River], a very rich stream; and lastly, at the end of 1780 and the beginning of 1781, a gang of nearly three thousand interlopers, called garimpeiros, discovered diamonds, and obtained an immense quantity from the Terra de Santo Antonio, but they were forced to abandon this spot to the Royal Farm [Royal Estate], who took possession of it. Then it was that the suspicion was confirmed, that the mountains are the true matrix of diamonds, but as the work in the beds of rivers and on their banks is less tedious, can be conducted on a larger scale, and affords larger diamonds, the Farm abandoned the mountains, and formed great establishments in the river of Toucanbirnen, which flows through the valleys of this chain, … It was found be examination and digging, that the whole surface of the ground, immediately beneath the vegetable stratum, contained more or less of diamonds, differentiated and attached to a matrix ferruginous and compact in various degrees, but never in veins, or in the divisions of geodes.”
[Discovery of Diamonds in Brazil], Author unknown, Select Reviews of Literature and Spirit of Foreign Magazines, Vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 133-134, (1809). An early description of Brazilian diamonds, which includes a mention that most jewelers believed that Brazilian diamonds were inferior in quality to those from India. This belief may have provided a reason for considering Indian diamonds to be more valuable.
[Diamonds in Brazil], E.A.W. von Zimmermann, Taschenbuch der Reisen, Vol. 7, pp. 38-57, (1808). This travel guide contains a description of the diamond mining area.
“History of Brazil”, R. Southey, Longman and Company, London (1810, 1817 and 1819). These volumes present the history and development of Brazil, including a discussion of diamond mining (pp. 274-282 of volume 3).
“The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the West Indies”, G.A. Thompson, James Carpenter Publishers, London, (1812). The mining of diamonds in the early 1700s is discussed on pages 323-325 of volume two. The author stated:
- “It was only about the beginning of the last (18th) century that diamonds made a part of the exports from Brazil to Europe. These valuable stones are, like the gold, found frequently in the beds of rivers and torrents. Before they were supposed to be of any value, they were often perceived in washing the gold, and were consequently thrown away with the sand and gravel; and numbers of large stones, that would have enriched their possessors, passed unregarded through the hands of several persons wholly ignorant of their nature. Antonio Rodrigues Banha suspected the value of them, and communicated his idea to Pedro d’Almeida, the governor of the country. Some of these brilliant pebbles were sent to the court of Lisbon, which, in 1730 commissioned d’Acunha (Luis da Cunha), their minister in Holland, to have them examined. After repeated experiments, the artists pronounced them to be very fine diamonds.”
“Travels in the Interior of Brazil”, J. Mawe, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, London, (1812). The author, a noted mineral dealer and collector, spent several years in Brazil, and upon his return to London, he produced one of the first detailed and now best known accounts of diamond and gold mining in the Minas Gerais region. He described the method used to find diamonds:
“The method of washing for diamonds at this place is as follows: – A shed is erected in the form of a parallelogram, …, consisting of upright posts which support a roof thatched with long grass. Down the middle of the area of this shed a current of water is conveyed through a canal covered with strong planks, on which the cascalhão is laid two or three feet thick. On the other side of the area is a flooring of [sloped] planks … The flooring is divided into about twenty compartments or troughs, …, by means of planks placed on their edge. The upper ends of these troughs communicate with the channel, and are so formed that water is admitted into them… The negroes enter the troughs, each provided with a rake … with which he rakes into the trough …. [the] cascalhão. The water being let in upon it, the cascalhão is spread abroad and continually raked up to the head of the trough, so as to be kept in constant motion. [After this operation is performed to remove the finer sediment], the gravel-like matter is raked up to the end of the trough, and … then the whole is examined with great care for diamonds. When a negro finds one, he immediately stands upright and claps his hands, then extends them, holding the gem between his fore-finger and thumb; an overseer receives it from him, and deposits it in a gamella or bowl, … In this vessel all the diamonds found in the course of the day are placed, and at the close of work are taken out and delivered to the principal officer, who, after they have been weighed, registers the particulars in a book kept for that purpose.”
A summary of this book appeared in the Edinburgh Review, Vol. 20, No. 40, pp. 305-315, (1812), the London Quarterly Review, Vol. 7, No. 14, pp. 342-356, (1812), the Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Review, Vol. 83, Part 1, pp. 141-146, (1813), the Analectic Magazine, Vol. 4, (November), pp. 353-367, (1814), the Niles’ Weekly Register, Vol. 10, No. 18, pp. 292-295, No. 19, pp. 306-308, and No. 20, pp. 324-326, (1816), the Annales des Mines, Vol. 2, pp. 199-240, (1817), and in the Annalen der Physik, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 140-173, (1818). A brief description of the diamond works at Mandango, taken from Mawe’s account, appeared in the Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine, Series 3, Vol. 1, pp. 38-39, (1822).
Physikalische und Bergmännische Nachrichten aus Brasilien [Physical and Mining News from Brazil], W.L. [Baron] von Eschwege, Annalen der Physik, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 117-139, (1818). The author, a German geologist and mining engineer, was hired by the Portuguese crown to survey the mining potential of Brazil. In this article, he discusses the mining areas of the country including the diamond district in Minas Gerais. A similar article by the same author appeared as Die Gold, Diamanten und Eisengruben in Brasilien [The Gold, Diamond and Iron Mines in Brazil], Museum des Neuesten und Wissenswürdigsten aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaft, Vol. 7, pp. 318-322, (1816), and Esquisse Géognostique du Brésil [Geognostical Sketches of Brazil], Annales des Mines, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 401-430, (1823). The same author included a description of the diamond mining region in his 1830 book “Brasilien – Die Neue Welt” [Brazil – the New World].
Embedded Diamonds, Unknown author, Journal of Science and the Arts, Vol. 5, No. 10, p. 378, (1819). Note on diamonds found embedded in a sandy, pebbly sedimentary rock cemented by iron oxides.
“A History of the Brazil”, J. Henderson, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, London, (1821). In this book, the author discusses the historical development of the country, and he describes the diamond district based on a visit between 1817 and 1821 (pp. 285-287).
“Le Bresil”, H. Taunay, Nepveu Publisher, Paris (1822). Volume three of this book discusses the alluvial diamond mining area.
[Brazilian Cascalhao], Author unknown, London Journal of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 6, p. 160, (1823). The matrix rock of diamonds is described as being called cascalhao, a sedimentary rock [a conglomerate] consisting of rounded pebbles and gravel cemented together by iron oxides. A similar note, describing diamond-bearing rock samples, appeared in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 17, p. 202, (1823), and in Transactions of the Geological Society of London, Vol.1, p. 419, (1822).
[Brazilian Diamonds], Unknown author, London Journal of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 6, p. 160, (1823). A note on two diamond crystals.
“Travels in Brazil in the Years 1817-1820”, J.B. von Spix and C.F.P. von Martius, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, London, (1824). These two naturalist explorers were sent by the King of Bavaria to survey the plant and animal life of Brazil, and in their book, they describe the diamond district in Minas Gerais. They provided the following description of recovering diamonds:
“The following is the method of working for the diamonds. When a certain quantity of the gravel or cascalhao in which they occur has been taken out of the river and put in the heaps, a ditch about two feet is made, and water is brought into it. The negroes, whose business it is to examine the cascalhao, place themselves upon a bench placed in this ditch. Each slave has a wooden dish about fifteen inches in diameter, which he fills with cascalhao. He at first takes out of it the largest stones; he then plunges the dish into water, stirs it briskly, and removes from it all the gravel, till there remains only sand in the bottom. If he then perceives in this sand a brilliant stone, he takes it between his thumb and inside finger, rises from his bench, and goes to deposit it in a small vessel filled with pure water, and placed on a stool before the inspectors. When he has finished his examination, he inverts his wooden dish, stretches out his arms and separates his fingers to show that he has not kept anything. He then goes again to fill his dish with cascalhao and repeats the same operation.”
The book was summarized in the Quarterly Review, Vol. 31, No. 61, pp. 1-26, (1824), the Edinburgh Journal of Science, Vol. 2, pp. 241-246, (1830), the Polar Star of Entertainment and Popular Science, Vol. 4, pp. 129-136, (1830), and the Foreign Quarterly Review, Vol. 5, pp. 449-475, (1830).
A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Arranged in Systematic Order, R. Kerr, Vol. 11, Part 2, Chapter 13 (Voyage round the World, by Commodore Roggewein, in 1721–1723), pp. 65–200, William Blackwood Publishers, Edinburgh, (1824). The discovery of Brazilian diamonds in the early 1700s is supported by the account of the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeven (or Roggewein), whose two-year voyage from Europe around South America into the Pacific Ocean eventually reached present-day Indonesia. His three ships anchored off the coast near São Paulo for a short time in November 1721. Several members of the crew deserted to go to the diamond mining area; according to Kerr:
- “A little time before the arrival of Roggewein, the Portuguese had discovered a diamond mine not far from St. Sebastian, of which at that time they were not in full possession, but were meditating an expedition against the Indians, in order to become sole masters of so valuable a prize; and with this view they invited the Dutch to join them, promising them a share in the riches in the event of success. By these means, nine of our soldiers were tempted to desert. I know not the success of this expedition; but it is probable that it succeeded, as great quantities of diamonds have since been imported from Brazil into Europe. They are said to be found on the tops of mountains among a peculiar red earth containing a great deal of gold; and, being washed down by the great rains and torrents into the vallies, are there gathered in lavaderas by negroes employed for the purpose.”
“The Modern Traveler – A Popular Description [ ..] of the Various Countries of the Globe: Brazil and Buenos Ayres”, J. Conder, Vol. 2, p. 96-102, Oliver and Boyd Publishers, Edinburgh, (1825). An early account of the diamond mines in Minas Gerais.
An Account of the Mines and the Province of Minas Gerais in the Empire of Brazil, Including a View of the Manner of Mining Metals and Precious Stones, Unknown author, Monthly Magazine or British Register, Vol. 1, (March), pp. 256-267 and (April), pp. 395-404, (1826). A geographic description of the province of Minas Gerais, and the methods used to locate and mine gold and diamonds, are discussed.
Nachricht von den Minen in Brasilien [Report on the Mines of Brazil], M. de Drummond, Neue Allgemeine Geographische und Statistische Ephemeriden, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 161-176, No. 7, pp. 193-208 and No. 8, pp. 225-238, (1827). The author describes a visit to the diamond mining area in Minas Gerais.
Die Lagerstätte des Diamanten [The Deposits of Diamonds], M. von Engelhardt, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 524-536, (1830). The author discusses the Brazilian diamond deposits.
“A Nutshell of Knowledge Concerning the Mine”, I. Taylor, J. Harris Publisher, London, (1830). This book contains a chapter on diamond mining (pp. 31-45).
[Diamond Mines], J. Bell, A System of Geography, Vol. 6, pp. 173-176, (1832). The Brazilian diamond mines are briefly discussed.
The Diamond District of the Serro de Frio, Author unknown, The Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, Vol. 20, No. 120, pp. 625-629, (1832). The diamond district in the region of Bela Horizonte is described.
Diamonds in Brazil, Author unknown, Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction, Vol. 19, No. 542, pp. 234-235, (1832). A brief note is presented on the methods of alluvial diamond mining.
Der Diamantendistrikt von Serro do Frio [The Diamond District of Serro do Frio], Unknown author, Das Ausland, Vol. 5, No. 154, pp. 615-616 and No. 157, pp. 627-628, (1832). The diamond-producing region of Minas Gerais is described.
Mines de Diamans [Diamond Mines], C.J.F.G. de Propiac, Les Merveilles du Monde, Vol. 2, pp. 50-56, (1832). Diamond mining in India and Brazil is discussed.
“Pluto Brasiliensis”, W.L. von Eschwege, G. Reimer Publishers, Berlin, (1833). This book represents the first work published in Europe on the geology of Brazil; it includes an extended description of the diamond district (pp. 345-446). The author, a mining engineer and metallurgist, had been invited to Brazil in 1810 to conduct a geological survey of the country. A summary of this book appeared in the Taschenbuch zur Verbreitung Geographischer Kenntnisse, Vol. 13, pp. 98-186, (1835).
“Voyage dans le District des Diamans et sur le Littoral du Bresil” [Voyage to the Diamond District and Littoral Regions of Brazil], A. de Saint-Hilaire, Librairie-Gide, Paris, (1833). Based on two visits to Brazil (1816-1822 and then in 1830), the author, a noted botanist, describes the diamond district. A summary of these two volumes appeared in The Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, Vol. 26, (January), pp. 6-15, (1835), in The Westminster Review, Vol. 21, No. 42, pp. 297-318, (1834), and in Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, Vol. 3, pp. 81-91, (1834). The book contains the following statements:
“As access to the Diamond District is exceedingly difficult, not only to strangers but likewise to the natives themselves, the notions which have been generally formed respecting it are particularly vague and imperfect. Its situation, moreover, in the lofty unfrequented part of the Province of the Mines, divided from the rest of the [Brazilian] empire by a circle of rocks, frowning, bleak, and desolate, has contributed to generate and maintain unfounded surmises and mysterious ideas concerning its productions and resources, which have from the first been monopolized by the government. The impediments to a free ingress into this “Valley of Diamonds” consist not so much of the obstacles erected around it by nature, as in certain regulations constructed by the governors for their benefit. By these, all persons not duly authorized – formerly by the crown of Portugal, now Brazil – are forbidden to approach the sacred district. Bands of soldiers, armed as against a public enemy, vigilantly guard every avenue; the slaves are watched during their labors by numerous overseers; every precaution is taken, every invention resorted to, in order to secure to the crown the possession of that wealth, which, in general, appears to be the only object for which monarchs undertake the management of public affairs.”
“Formerly, when the diamonds were more abundant and less difficult to extract, there existed a sort of smugglers, who acting in concert, dispersed themselves over the places where the jewels were most plentifully found, and sought for them themselves. Some of the party, stationed as sentinels on the heights, gave notice to the laborers of the approach of the troops; upon which the whole band made their escape, climbing the most difficult and precipitous mountains. This was the practice that caused them to be denominated grimpeiros, or “climbers”, from which, by corruption, the word garimpeiros, the appellation by which they are still known, has been formed.”
The Diamond, Author unknown, Saturday Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 195, pp. 20-21, (1835). Some general information on manufacturing diamond, with a mention of their occurrence in Brazil.
Die Diamantengruben in Brasilien [The Diamond Diggings in Brazil], Unknown author, Das Pfennig Magazin, Vol. 4, No. 144, pp. 5-6, (1836). Information is presented on the diamond mines in Minas Gerais.
Considérations Abrégées sur la Géognoise du District des Diamants du Brésil [Abridged Considerations on the Geognosy of the Diamond District of Brazil], T. Clemencon, Perrin Publishers, Lyon, (1836). This booklet describes the diamond-producing area of Minas Gerais. The booklet is summarized in a short article in L’Institut Journal Universel, Vol. 5, No. 221, pp. 366-367, (1837).
Notes on the Diamond District of Serro Frio, J.J. Sturz, A Review of Financial, Statistical and Commercial of the Empire of Brazil and its Resources, Effingham Wilson, London, pp. 137-140, (1837). A brief description is given of the diamond deposits near Serro do Frio (present-day Belo Horizonte) in Minas Gerais.
“Brésil” [Brazil], J.F. Denis, Didot Frères Publishers, Paris, (1837). This book contains a section on the diamond district on pages 340-348.
Diamond Washing, Author unknown, The Wonders of the World, No. 27, pp. 201-203, (1838). A short description of the washing process used to recover alluvial diamonds.
Die Diamantenwäschereien von Serro Frio [The Diamond Washings of the Serro Frio], Unknown author, Das Ausland, Vol. 13, No. 279, pp. 1113-1114, (1840). The placer deposits around Diamantina are briefly described, along with information on approximately 3 million carats of rough diamonds recovered in the region between about 1730 and 1830.
Notice sur le Gisement et l’Exploitation du Diamant dans la Province de Minas Geraes au Brésil [The Deposit and Exploitation of Diamonds in the Province of Minas Geraes in Brazil], S.J. Denis de Herve, Bulletins de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belle-Lettres de Bruxelles, Vol. 7, No. 1, 133-144, (1840). The author describes the alluvial diamond deposits and their geological setting. A summary of the article appeared in the Annales des Mines, Vol. 19, pp. 602-604, (1841).
Notes Géologiques sur la Province de Minas Gerais, au Brésil [Geological Notes on the Province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil], P. Claussen, Bulletins de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 322-344, (1841). Based on living and working as a naturalist in Brazil for twenty years, the author discusses the geology of Minas Gerais including the diamond district. This article was summarized in The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol. 31, No. 62, pp. 427-429, (1841), in the Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art, pp. 242-243, (1842), and in the Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrafakten-Kunde, Vol. 10, pp. 459-460, (1842).
Diamond Carriers, Author unknown, The Penny Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 637, pp. 100-101, (1842). This article from a popular magazine gives a brief description of diamond mining in Brazil. The information is taken from the 1812 book by John Mawe (mentioned above).
Memoria sobre as Minas da Capitania de Minas Gerais [Memoir on the Mines of the Capitancy of Minas Gerais], J.V. Couto, Eduardo and Henrique Laemmert, Rio de Janeiro, (1801, republished in 1842). The author describes the mines and state of mining activity toward the end of the 18th century in Minas Gerais.
Note sur le Gisement des Diamants au Brésil [Note on the Diamond Deposits of Brazil], S.G. Lomonosoff, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Series 3, Vol. 7, pp. 241-243, (1843). This short report on the Brazilian diamond deposits was written by a Russian diplomat who spent several years traveling in the country.
Diamant und sein Mutter-Gestein in Brasilien, [Diamond and its Mother-Rock in Brazil], H. Girard, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrekakten-Kunde, Vol. 11, pp. 307-310, (1843). The author discusses the occurrence of diamonds and its possible host rock. The report was also published in the same year in the Journal für Praktische Chemie, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 195-196 and in the Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitung, Vol. 2, No. 41, pp. 876-877.
Die Ursprungliche Geognostische Lagerstatte der Diamanten in Brasilien [The Original Geognostic Deposits of Diamonds in Brazil], J.K. Hocheder, Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte, Vol. 21, pp. 105-107, (1843). A discussion of the diamond deposits.
Commercial Value of the Diamond, Author unknown, Penny Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 781, pp. 214-216, (1844). The discovery of diamonds a century earlier in Brazil is described, along with the practice by some merchants at the time to send them to India where they could be packaged and sold as Indian diamonds which were considered superior. However, their increasing availability, and their quality being found equal to the diamonds from India, resulted in a regular and extensive trade in Brazilian gems.
The Diamond Mines of Brazil, and the Diamond Finders, Author unknown, The Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 183-186, (1844). The history of diamond mining beginning in the early 18th century is discussed. In 1730, the diamonds were declared royal property, and mining could only be conducted with a permit and payment of taxes. This system did not prevent fraud and abuse, so the Portuguese government took over control of the mining areas in 1772. The article provides information taken from the 1833 report by A. de Saint-Hilaire (summarized above).
“Diamond Mines”, S.G. Goodrich, Enterprise Industry and Art of Man, Bradbury Soden and Company, Boston, (1845). This book contains a short section on the diamond mines (pp. 278-285).
[Bahia Carbonado], Author unknown, Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, Vol. 2, p. 16, (1845). A note on one of the first samples of black diamond, or carbonado, from Bahia that was shown in Liverpool.
New Diamond Mine in Brazil, Author unknown, The Athenaeum, No. 937 (October 11), p. 994, and No. 943 (November 22), p. 1127, (1845). In 1843 a new occurrence of alluvial diamonds was discovered in the Sincora Mountains in the state of Bahia. The short article presents general information on the new deposit. A similar article appeared in Littell’s Living Age, Vol. 8, No. 87, pp. 81-82, (1846), in The Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art, pp. 249-250, (1846), in the Das Pfennig Magazin, Vol. 4, No. 160, pp. 31-32, (1846), and in the Illustrirte Zeitung, Vol. 6, No. 151, pp. 335-337, (1846).
Crowns in Danger, Author unknown, Punch Magazine, Vol. 10, p. 20, (1846). A brief satirical discussion of the diamonds in jewelry loosing much of their value because of the abundance of lower quality diamonds coming from the mines in Brazil, in comparison to the better diamonds coming previously from India.
Ueber Brasilianische Diamanten [About Brazilian Diamonds], E.F. Glocker, Journal für Praktische Chemie, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 318-320, (1846). The author examines several rough diamonds from Brazil.
Der Diamanten-Distrikt in der Provinz Minas Geraes [The Diamond District in the Province of Minas Gerais], Author unknown, Der Bergwerksfreund, Vol. 8, No. 24, pp. 369-375, (1846). This article describes the diamondfields.
“Glimpses of the Wonderful”, I.D. Williamson, Wiley and Putnam Publishers, New York, (1846). This book contains a section that describes the recovery of alluvial diamonds in Brazil (pp. 82-87).
“Souvenirs des Voyages: L’Empire du Brésil” [Travel Souvenirs: The Empire of Brazil], C.L.A. de Suzannet, G-A. Dentu Publishers, Paris, (1846). Based on a visit to the country, the author describes the diamond mining region in Minas Gerais. A summary of the information on diamonds appeared in the Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitung, Vol. 5, No. 34, pp. 734-741, (1846).
“Ueber das Geognostische Vorkommen der Diamanten und Ihre Gewinnungsmethoden auf der Serra do Grão Mogor in der Provinz Minas-Geraes in Brasilien” [The Geognostic Occurence of Diamonds and the Methods of Obtaining Them in the Serra do Grão Mogol in the Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil], V. von Helmreichen zu Brunfeld, Braumüller and Seidel Publishers, Vienna, (1846). The author, an Austrian naturalist, spent several years in Brazil and he described diamond mining near Grão Mogol.
Die Diamantgruben Brasiliens [The Brazilian Diamond Diggings], Unknown author, Das Pfennig Magazin, Vol. 7, No. 194, pp. 297-299, (1846). This article reviews the history of diamond production.
Transporting Diamonds in Brazil, Author unknown, Merry’s Museum, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 129-130, (1847). A brief note on mining diamonds in Minas Gerais, and then on transporting them by mule train under armed guard to Rio de Janeiro for shipment to Europe.
D'un Diamant en Masse Amorphe et Compacte Provenant du Brésil [A Compact and Massive Amorphous Diamond from Brazil], L.E. Rivot, Annales des Mines, Vol. 14, pp. 419-422, (1848), Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 317-319, (1849), and Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde, Vol. 17, pp. 536-564, (1849). Early descriptions by the same author of carbonado and Brazilian diamonds.
Memoria sobre as Minas da Capitania de Minas Gerais [Memoir about the Mines of the Capitancy of Minas Gerais], J.V. Couto, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, Vol. 11, pp. 289-335, (1848). The author discusses mining in the Minas Gerais region.
Ueber die Neuerlich in der Serra de Sincura und Sertao der Provinz Bahia aufgefundenen Diamanten-Localitaten [About the Recently Found Diamond Localities in the Serra de Sincura and the Interior of the Province of Bahia], Author unknown, Der Bergwerksfund, Vol. 11, No. 46, pp. 725-728, (1849). A short report of diamond discoveries in Bahia.
Analyse eines Brasilischen Diamanten [Analysis of Brazilian Diamonds], L.E. Rivot, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde, Vol. 17, pp. 563-564, (1849). A study of several diamond crystals.
New Mineral from Brazil, P.A. Dufrenoy, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 230, pp. 397-398, (1849). A report on the discovery of carbonado diamond. The report also appeared in the American Journal of Science, Vol. 57, No. 21, p. 433, (1849), in the Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 254-255, (1850), and in the Annual of Scientific Discovery, pp. 273-274, (1850).
“Travels in the Interior of Brazil, Principally through the Northern Provinces, and the Gold and Diamond Districts during the Years 1836-1841”, G. Gardner, Reeve Benham and Reeve Publishers, London, (1849). This book is a report of a visit by a Scottish biologist who collected botanical specimens throughout the country. The book contains a chapter on the diamond district.
Diamanten in Brasilien [Diamonds in Brazil], Author unknown, Das Westland, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 161-174, (1852). A description of the alluvial diamond fields.
“Reise nach Brasilien, durch die Provinzen von Rio de Janeiro und Minas Geraes” [Travel to Brazil, through the Provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais], H. Burmeister, G. Reimer Publisher, Berlin, (1853). The author describes traveling in southern Brazil including the diamond mining areas.
Note sur un Cristal de Diamant Provenant du District Bogagem, au Brésil [Note on a Crystal of Diamond Originating from the Bagagem District of Brazil], P.A. Dufrénoy, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 3-5, (1855). Report on a 254-carat diamond having been found in the Bagagem District of Minas Gerais in July 1853. A note on this diamond, named the Star of the South, appeared in the Allgemeine Deutsche Naturhistorische Zeitung, Vol. 9, pp. 205-206, (1855), in the Mining Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 370, (1855), in the American Journal of Science, Vol. 69, No. 56, p. 288, (1855), and in the Annual of Scientific Discovery, pp. 302-303, (1856). As of the time of its discovery, it was the largest rough diamond to come to Europe from Brazil.
Note sur le Diamant Noir [Note on the Black Diamond], A.L.O.L Des Cloizeaux, Annales des Mines, Vol. 8, pp. 304-306, (1855). One of the first descriptions of black, opaque carbonado diamond that had first been found in the previous decade in Bahia.
Diamond Washing in Brazil, and Diamond Cutting in Amsterdam, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol. 6, No. 144, pp. 219-222, (1856). The recovery of alluvial diamonds in Brazil is described. The same article also appeared in the Eclectic Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 137-141, (1857).
Amorpher Schwarzer Diamant von La Chapada in der Provinz Bahia in Brasilien [Amorphous Black Diamond from La Chapada in the Province of Bahia, Brazil], J.J. Noeggerath, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrafakten-Kunde, Vol. 25, p. 64, (1857). A note of the polycrystalline amorphous diamond material later called carbonado.
Considerations Geographiques sur l'Histoire du Bresil [Geographical Considerations for the History of Brazil], F.A. de Vanhagen, Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, Vol. 14, pp. 89-356, (1857). The author discusses how geography influenced the history of development and mining in the country.
“L’Empire du Brésil – Souvenirs de Voyage” [The Empire of Brazil – Travel Memories], J.J.E. Roy, Mame and Sons Publishers, Tours, (1858). A French diplomat who resided for a decade in Rio de Janeiro described the country including the diamond district.
Neue Untersuchungen des Diamanten-füheren Sandes [New Investigations of Diamond-bearing Sands], A.A. Damour, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrafakten-Kunde, Vol. 26, pp. 818-819, (1858). The diamond-bearing sediments from Bahia are briefly discussed. A similar article by this author appeared earlier in the Bulletin de la Sociéte Géologique de France, Vol. 13, pp. 542-554, (1856).
Description d’un Diamant Remarquable Contenant des Cristaux [Description of a Remarkable Diamond Containing Crystals], P. Harting, C.G. Van der Post Publishers, Amsterdam, (1858). A report on a 4-ct diamond crystal from Bahia that contained interesting inclusions. This report was also published in the Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Vol. 6, pp. 1-15, (1858).
Ueber die Wahre Lagerstätte der Diamanten und anderer Edelsteine in der Provinz Minas Geraes in Brasilien [On the Real Occurrences of Diamond and other Gemstones in the Province of Minas Gerais in Brazil], C. Heusser and G. Claraz, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 448-466, (1859). The authors describe the occurrence of diamonds and other gems. Summaries of this report appeared in the Annales des Mines, Vol. 5, No. 17, pp. 289-299, (1860), in the Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde, Vol. 29, pp. 232-235, (1861), in The Geologist, Vol. 4, pp. 163-168, (1861), and in the Chemical News, Vol. 10, No. 261, pp. 269-270, (1864).
[The Brazilian Empire], Author unknown, London Quarterly Review, Vol. 108, No. 216, pp. 159-179, (1860). This article summarizes published articles and books on the history of Brazil, including a short discussion of the diamond mines.
Der Gold- und Diamantenreichthum Brasiliens [The Gold and Diamond Wealth of Brazil], Author unknown, Aus der Natur, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 86-91, (1862). A description is given of the gold- and diamond-producing areas of the country.
Lapidação do Diamante [Polishing of Diamond], N.J. Moreira, O Auxiliador da Industria Nacional, Cotrim and Campos, Rio de Janeiro, (1866). The author provides some general information on diamond, and then summarizes the Brazilian occurrences in Minas Gerais.
“Reisen durch Südamerika” [Traveling through South America], J.J. von Tschudi, F.A. Brockhaus Publishers, Leipzig, (1866). The author traveled through the continent between 1857 and 1859 as a naturalist and explorer. His book includes a description of the diamond-producing region of Minas Gerais (Vol. 2, pp. 94-166).
Die Brasilianischen Diamanten [The Brazilian Diamonds], Author unknown, Aus der Natur, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 22-24, (1867). A brief description is given of the Brazilian diamondfields.
Die Diamantenlager von Sao Joao do Barro bei Diamantina in Brasilien und sein Betrieb [The Diamond Deposit of Sao Joao do Barro near Diamantina in Brazil and its Industry], Author unknown, Vorwärts! Magazin für Kaufleute, Vol. 18, pp. 27-34 and 109-116, (1867). A discussion of mining a diamond deposit.
Brasilien – Das Diamantenland [Brazil – the Diamond Land], J.J. von Tschudi, Magazin für die Literature des Auslandes, Vol. 71, No. 13, pp. 173-175, (1867). A short discussion of the diamond mining industry.
“Memórias de Districto Diamantino da Comarca do Serro Frio (Provincia de Minas Geraes)” [Memoirs of the Diamond District, County of Serro Frio (Province of Minas Gerais)], J.F. dos Santos, Typographia Americana, (1868). This book is one of the first detailed descriptions of the diamond district written by a Brazilian journalist and historian.
On the Geology of the Chapada Diamantina in the Province of Bahia, Brazil, C.G. Nicolay, Report of the 38th Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Norwich, August 1868), pp. 74-76, (1869). The author briefly describes the geology of the diamond-bearing region and the minerals that are found with the alluvial diamonds.
The Diamonds of Brazil, Author unknown, Scientific American, Vol. 21, No. 10, p. 154, (1869). Some general information is presented on diamonds, including a list of the features they can exhibit.
A Remarkable Stone - Supposed Enormous Black Diamond, Author unknown, Scientific American, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp 18-19, (1869). A short article on carbonado.
“Explorations of the Highlands of Brazil”, R.F. Burton, Tinsley Brothers Publishers, London, (1869). The author was one of the most famous English explorers of the 19th Century, having visited regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Beginning in 1865, he spent several years traveling in Brazil and other areas of South America, and in the second volume of this book he provided a description of the diamond-mining region. A summary of the book appeared in Chambers’s Journal, Vol. 46, No. 281, pp. 313-316, (1869); a brief mention appeared in The World of Wonders, p. 186, (1870).
Cutting Tools of "Black Diamond", Author unknown, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 89, No. 6, pp. 361-364, (1870). A description of metal cutting tools that contain pieces of carbonado.
Brazil, Its Emperor and Its People, Author unknown, Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 385-400, (1876). In this general article on the country, the diamond district is discussed on pages 389-390.
“Brasilien: Land und Leute” [Brazil: Land and People], O. Canstatt, Mittler und Sohn Publishers, Berlin, (1877). This book contains a chapter on diamonds and other Brazilian gems.
A Geologia da Região Diamantifera da Provincia do Paraná [The Geology of the Diamondtiferous Region of the Province of Paraná], O.A. Derby, Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 3, pp. 89-98, (1878). The geological setting of the diamond-bearing region of Paraná is described. The article was republished in English in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 18, (May 16), pp. 251-258, (1880). The author worked as a geologist in Brazil from 1875 until 1915.
Observações sobre Algumas Rochas Diamantiferas da Provinca de Minas Geraes [Observations on Some Diamond-bearing Rocks in the Province of Minas Geraes], O.A. Derby, Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 4, No. 31, pp. 121-132, (1879). The diamond-bearing rocks in Minas Gerais are described.
Sur le Gisement du Diamant au Brésil [On the Diamond Deposits in Brazil], C.H. Gorceix, Bulletin de la Société Minéralogique de France, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 36-38, (1880). A summary is given of the diamond deposits. The author, a French mineralogist, was invited by the Brazilian government to arrange for the teaching of mineralogy and geology in the country. He organized and directed the School of Mines in the city of Ouro Preto from 1876 to 1891.
Sur les Gisements Diamantifères de Minas-Gérais (Brésil) [On the Diamond-Bearing Deposits of Minas Gerais (Brazil)], C.H. Gorceix, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Vol. 93, No. 23, pp. 981-983, (1881). The minerals that are found with the alluvial diamonds in Minas Gerais are discussed.
Modes of Occurrence of the Diamond in Brazil, O.A. Derby, American Journal of Science, Vol. 24, No. 139, pp. 34-42, (1882). The alluvial diamond deposits in Minas Gerais are discussed.
Les Diamantes et Pierres Précieuses du Brésil [Diamonds and Precious Stones of Brazil], C.H. Gorceix, La Revue Scientifique, Vol. 29, No. 18, pp. 553-561, (1882). This article reviews the history and sources of gem minerals in Brazil. A similar article by the author appeared in the Bulletin Hebdomadaire de l'Association Scientifique de France, Vol. 4, No. 99, pp. 325-337 and No. 100, pp. 342-355, (1882).
Sur les Gisements Diamanifères de Minas-Géraës (Brésil) [On the Diamond-Bearing Deposits of Minas Geraes (Brazil)], C.H. Gorceix, Bulletin de la Société Minéralogique de France, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 9-13, (1882). A review of the diamond deposits in the state is provided in this article.
Brazilian Diamonds and Their Origin, C.H. Gorceix, Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 21, No. 9, pp. 610-620, (1882). A description of the geologic setting of the diamond deposits is presented. A summary of a public lecture on this subject given by the author appeared in the Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 33, No. 10, p. 132, (1882).
Geology of the Diamond, O.A. Derby, American Journal of Science, Series 3, Vol. 23, No. 134, pp. 97-99, (1882). The author, an American geologist who lived and traveled in Brazil between 1870 and 1915, discusses the geologic setting of the diamond deposits in Minas Gerais.
L’Industrie Minérale dans la Province de Minas-Geraës [Industrial Minerals of the Province of Minas Gerais], A. de Bovet, Annales des Mines, Vol. 3, pp. 85-208, (1883). The industrial minerals of the province, including carbonado, are discussed.
Sur la Taille Diamant et l'Emploi Industriel du Carbonado [The Cutting of Diamond and the Industrial Use of Carbonado], H. Jacobs and N. Chatrain, Bulletin Hebdomadaire de l'Association Scientifique de France, Vol. 8, No. 202, pp. 283-296 and No. 204/205, 337-342, (1884). A discussion of polishing diamond and the industrial uses of carbonado.
Five Brazilian Diamonds, G.F. Kunz, Science, Vol. 3, No. 69, pp. 649-650, (1884). Some unusual diamond crystals from Brazil are described. A similar report by the author appeared in the Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 3, (November 12), p. 21, (1883).
Noticia Relativa a Alguns Mineraes dos Cascalhos Diamantiferos Contendo Acido Phosphorice, Alumina e Outras Terras da Familia do Cerium [News Relative to Some Minerals of the Diamondiferous Cascalho Containing Phosphoric Acid, Alumina, and other Earths of the Family of Cerium], C.H. Gorceix, Annaes da Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto, No. 3, pp. 161-175, (1884). A report of some unusual minerals being found along with diamond in cascalho (sedimentary conglomerate).
Note sur une Exploitation de Diamants près de Diamanina (Province de Minas Geraes, Brésil) [Note on the the Exploitation of Diamonds near Diamantina (Province of Minas Gerais, Brazil)], A. de Bovet, Annales des Mines, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp. 465-504, (1884). A description is presented of the history and methods of diamond mining in Brazil. A summary of this article appeared in La Nature, Vol. 12, No. 585, pp. 166-170, (1884), the Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 18, No. 458, pp. 7313-7314, (1884), and in the prior year in the Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 36, No. 14, pp. 216-217, and No. 15, p. 233, (1883).
Estudo dos Mineraes que Acompanhão o Diamante na Jazida de Salobro, Provincia da Bahia, Brazil [A Study of the Minerals Accompanying Diamond at the Deposit of Salobro, Bahia Province, Brazil], C.H. Gorceix, Annaes da Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto, No. 3, pp. 175-182, (1884). This article summarizes an investigation of the minerals found along with diamond in this deposit. It also appeared in the Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, Vol. 7, pp. 209-218, (1884), and in the Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Vol. 98, No. 23, pp. 1446-1448, (1884).
Gisement de Diamante de Grao-Mogor (Province de Minas Géraës), Brésil [Deposit of Diamonds at Grao-Mogol (Province of Minas Gerais), Brazil], C.H. Gorceix, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Series 3, Vol. 12, pp. 538-546, (1884). The alluvial diamond occurrences near Grao Mogol are discussed by the author. A summary of this article can be found in Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Vol. 98, pp. 1010-1011, (1884).
Diamond Mining in Brazil, Author unknown, Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 18, No. 458, pp. 7313-7314, (1884). The history of diamond mining in the country is described.
Viagem aos Terrenos Diamantiferos do Abaeté [Travel to the Diamondiferous Terranes near Abaeté], A.O. dos Santos-Pires, Annaes da Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto, No. 4, pp. 91-164, (1885). A description of the diamond-bearing terrane near the city of Abaete.
Hardness of Diamond, G.F. Kunz, American Journal of Science, Series 3, Vol. 30, No. 175, pp. 81-82, (1885). Report of polishing experiments conducted by Tiffany & Company on a piece of black polycrystalline diamond (carbonado) of superior hardness. A similar report appeared in the Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 5, (April 19), pp. 223-224, (1886).
Diamonds, Author unknown, Cornhill Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 38, pp. 130-157, (1886). This general article on diamonds includes a discussion of the discoveries in Brazil.
Sur le Gisement de Diamants de Salobro (Brésil) [On the Diamond Deposit at Salobro (Brazil)], N. Chatrain, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 302-305, (1888). A short report on the alluvial diamond deposits at Salobro.
Die Diamantmijnen van Brazilie [The Diamond Mines of Brazil], A.D. Hagedoorn, Natuur en Mensch, Vol. 9, pp. 150-153, (1889). General information on the diamond mines in the country.
“Le Brésil en 1889” [Brazil in 1889], F.J. de Santa-Anna Nery, Charles Delagrave Publishers, Paris (1889). This book contains a description of the diamond-mining areas (pp. 75-79).
Relatório da Comissão Exploradora do Planalto Central do Brasil [Report of the Exploratory Commission of the Central Plateau of Brazil], L. Cruls, (1894). This is the report of the commission responsible for locating the place to which the capital of the country would be moved according to the National Constitution of 1891. The report contains a section on the diamond district of Minas Gerais written by E. Hussak (pp. 311-319). A summary of this report appeared in La Nature – Revue des Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1148, pp. 1-2, (1895).
Note sur les Gisements Diamantifères d’Agua Suja [Note on the Diamond Deposits of Agua Suja], J.P. Calogeras, Revue Universelle des Mines, Series 3, Vol. 29, pp. 1-21, (1895). The author, a mining engineer from Ouro Preto, describes the alluvial diamond desposits at Agua Suja in Minas Gerais.
The Largest Diamond ever Found, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 60, No. 14, p. 323, (1895). Note on the discovery of a piece of carbonado weighing 3100 carats. This sample was described in La Revue Scientifique, Vol. 56, No. 14, pp. 440-441, (1895), in the Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Vol. 121, No. 13, pp. 339-450, (1895), and the Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 42, No. 1083, pp. 17309-17310, (1896).
Étude des Sables Diamantifères du Brésil [Study of the Diamondiferous Sands of Brazil], H. Moissan, Comptes Rendus de Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Vol. 123, No. 5, pp. 277-278, (1896). Certain sands were found to contain microscopic diamonds and other heavy mineral grains.
Sur un Échantillon de Carbon Noir du Bresil [On a Sample of Black Carbon from Brazil], H. Moissan, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Vol. 121, No. 13, pp. 449-450, (1895). An examination of a large sample of carbonado. A shorter version of this article appeared in La Nature, Vol. 23, No. 1166, p. 304, (1895).
Descoberta de Diamantes em Minas [Discovery of Diamonds in Minas], P. de B. da Fonseca-Lobo, Revista do Archivo Público Mineiro, Vol. 2, pp. 271-282, (1897). A report on the history of diamond discovery in Minas Gerais.
Brazilian Evidence on the Genesis of the Diamond, O.A. Derby, Journal of Geology, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 121-146, (1898). The author discusses the genesis of the Brazilian diamonds in light of evidence obtained from their occurrence in kimberlites in South Africa.
Black Diamonds, Author unknown, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 77, No. 23, p. 532, (1898). This note presents information on carbonado diamonds from Bahia.
Carbons in Brazil, H.W. Furniss, United States Consular Reports, Vol. 58, No. 219, pp. 604-606, (1898). A report of the US consul in Bahia on the carbonado industry. A similar article appeared in the Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 47, No. 2431, pp. 662-663, (1899).
Ein Beitrage zur Kenntnis der sogenannten “Favas” der Brasilianischen Diamantsande [A Contribution to the Knowledge of the so-called “Favas” of the Brazilian Diamond Sediments], E. Hussak, Tschermak’s Mineralogische und Petrographische Mittheilungen, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 334-359, (1899). A report on the oxide minerals found as rounded pebbles in the diamond-bearing sediments (cascalhos).
Diamantes na Bagagem [Diamonds of Bagagem], H.R. des Genettes, Revista do Archivo Público Mineiro, Vol. 4, pp. 287-292, (1899). The author describes the area of the Bagagem River that has been an important source of alluvial diamonds.
Die Mineralien-, insbesondere Diamanten- und Goldproduction in Minas Gerais, Brasilien [Minerals, in particular Diamond and Gold Production in Minas Gerais, Brazil], Author unknown, Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitung, Vol. 58, No. 43, pp. 505-507 and No. 44, pp. 517-519, (1899). A report on mineral production.
Les Mines de Diamants du Bresil [The Diamond Mines of Brazil], Author unknown, La Revue Scientifique, Vol. 64, No. 27, pp. 848-849, (1899). A short description of the diamond mines.
Die Diamantenproduction in Brasilien [Diamond Production in Brazil], C. Nusser-Asport, Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 103-110, (1899). A review of diamond production in the country.
Noticia sobre a Descoberta das Lavras Diamantinas na Bahia [Notice on the Discovery of the Diamond Mines in Bahia], G.A. Pereira, Revista do Instituto Geográphico e Histórico da Bahia, No. 29, pp. 75-80, (1899). The author discusses the history of diamond mining in Bahia.
Diamond and Gold Mining in Minas Gerais, T.C. Dawson, Consular Reports, Vol. 60, No. 226, pp. 535-553, (1899). An extract of a general report on the diamond mining region prepared by the secretary of the U.S. Legation following a visit to the mining area. A summary of this report appeared in the Jewelers’ Circular, Vol. 38, No. 16, pp. 14-16, (1899); in the Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 78, No. 24, p. 640 and No. 25, p. 668, and Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 9 and No. 2, p. 37, (1899); and in Stone – An Illustrated Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 133-137, (1899).
Dr. James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California.