Citrine - the transparent, pale yellow to brownish orange variety of quartz - is rare in nature. In the days before modern gemology, its tawny colour caused it to be confused with topaz. Citrine’s attractive colour, plus the durability and affordability it shares with most other quartzes, makes it the top-selling yellow-to-orange gem. It’s an attractive alternative not only for topaz, but also for yellow sapphire. The finest citrine colour is a saturated yellow to reddish orange free of brownish tints.
These gems, ranging from orangey yellow to reddish orange, are examples of fine citrine colour. - Courtesy C. Y. Sheng
Since natural citrine is rare, most of the citrine on the market is the result of heat treatment, which causes some amethyst to change colour from undesirable pale violet to an attractive yellow. The amethyst’s original hue can determine the richness of the resulting citrine’s yellow colour.
Low-temperature heat treatment transformed an amethyst into this orangey citrine. A gem carver created the attractive fantasy cut. - GIA & Tino Hammid
Citrine crystals occur in a wide range of sizes, and citrine sizes up to 20 carats are readily available in jewellery. Although citrine is available in standard shapes and sizes, many high-end jewellery designers and gem carvers have fashioned the warm yellow gem into unusual cuts for jewellery and carvings.
This citrine carving weighs 167.78 carats. - Courtesy ICA