Press Release

GIA Researchers Identify New Spinel Treatment

Scientists at the GIA laboratory in New York City recently discovered spinel treated by nickel diffusion in a parcel of gems acquired for research purposes by the GIA research team in Bangkok.
Suite of faceted nickel-diffused spinel (0.674–1.009 ct) showing the range of color from blue to bluish green. Photo by Aaron Palke and Diego Sanchez, ©GIA

Nickel diffusion discovered in research parcel

CARLSBAD, Calif. – Feb. 14, 2023 – Scientists at the GIA laboratory in New York City recently discovered spinel treated by nickel diffusion in a parcel of gems acquired for research purposes by the GIA research team in Bangkok.
In examining the supposedly cobalt-diffused spinels, GIA researchers discovered high concentrations of nickel, consistent with diffusion treatment. The treatment with nickel, not seen before by GIA or reported in gemological literature, caused the development of a blue-to-green color in pale-colored spinel and was accompanied by artificial healing of fractures resulting from the heating process.
“The detection of this new treatment underscores the vital importance of GIA’s independent research to protect consumers and ensure that they, and the global gem and jewelry trade, have confidence in their purchases,” said Susan Jacques, GIA president and CEO. “This discovery is the result of our very important and comprehensive research program, in which GIA invests millions of dollars each year. We have an exceptional team of experts and scientists in gemology, geology, physics, chemistry and other disciplines using very sophisticated instrumentation. This is what enables us to detect new, undisclosed treatments which, if undetected, can deceive both the trade and consumers.”
Gems & Gemology, GIA’s quarterly professional journal, recently published the research online; it will appear in the Spring 2023 print edition of the journal.
Using advanced spectroscopic equipment, GIA researchers discovered indications of nickel-related absorption in natural spinel. Other key indicators of the nickel absorption treatment are color concentration at facet junctions, photoluminescence spectra indicating heat treatment and abnormally high amounts of nickel.
"Nickel-diffused spinel has not been seen before by GIA," said Shane McClure, global director of colored stone services at GIA's world headquarters in Carlsbad, Calif. "Anyone examining spinel in this color range showing evidence of heat treatment should consider the possibility of nickel diffusion."
“One of our skilled gemologists, Abadie Ludlam, suggested that we look closely at the cobalt-treated spinel,” said GIA research scientist Dr. Mike Jollands, the lead author of the article. “Our analysis showed barely detectable cobalt and revealed previously unseen and highly elevated nickel concentrations in the spinel.”
GIA first reported on spinel treated by cobalt diffusion in 2015. Examination for the treatment, which yields a vibrant blue hue, is part of GIA’s gemological service for spinel.

About GIA

An independent nonprofit organization, GIA (Gemological Institute of America), established in 1931, is recognized as the world’s foremost authority in gemology. GIA invented the famous 4Cs of Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat Weight and, in 1953, created the International Diamond Grading System™ which is recognized around the world as the standard for diamond quality.
Through research, education, gemological laboratory services and instrument development, the Institute is dedicated to ensuring the public trust in gems and jewelry by upholding the highest standards of integrity, academics, science and professionalism.