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Emerald is the bluish green to green variety of beryl, a mineral species that includes aquamarine.

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Highly saturated green color defines high quality emerald.

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Beveled corners

Emerald cuts have concentric parallel rows of facets and beveled corners.

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“jardin,” or garden.

Eye visible inclusions create an internal scene referred to as “jardin,” or garden.

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Emerald crystals are commonly six-sided.

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The tops of emerald crystals are typically rather flat.

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Color direction

The best color is usually perpendicular to the top of the crystal.

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Emerald crystals from Habachtal
History of Emerald Mining in the Habachtal Deposit of Austria, Part I

Contributes to the mining history of Austria’s Habachtal region, which is believed to be one of the earliest emerald deposits.

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Emeralds from Swat Valley, Pakistan
Inclusion and Trace Element Characteristics of Emeralds from Swat Valley, Pakistan

Presents a detailed study of gemological properties, inclusion features, spectroscopic characteristics, and chemical composition of emeralds from this important source.

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Francisco Restrepo Escobar
History of the Chivor Emerald Mine, Part II (1924–1970): Between Insolvency and Viability

Chronicles developments at the Chivor emerald mine in Colombia between 1924 and 1970, based on archival records.

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Plains visible from the Chivor mine
History of the Chivor Emerald Mine, Part I (1880–1925): From Rediscovery to Early Production

Chronicles developments at the Chivor emerald mine in Colombia between 1880 and 1925, based on archival records.

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Gem materials and in front of rare books.
Top 10 Digital Reads from the GIA Library

Explore GIA’s collection of free, rare digital books and manuscripts that document the history of gems and jewelry.

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A large group of people in a hallway.
Coronavirus May Cut Chinese Demand, Diamond Companies See Better Times

The economic impact of the coronavirus in mainland China and Hong Kong. Plus, an update on the diamond market and gold jewelry.

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Colombian emerald crystal
Geographic Origin Determination of Emerald

The relative chemical diversity of emeralds from different deposits worldwide allows clear origin determination in most cases. This contribution explains the criteria used by GIA to make geographic origin conclusions for emeralds.

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Field gemologists sort through gem gravel in Myanmar
Field Gemology: Building a Research Collection and Understanding the Development of Gem Deposits

With more than 90 field expeditions on six continents since 2008, GIA has accumulated over 22,000 colored stone reference samples. This extensive collection of colored stones with known origins supports GIA’s research on geographic origin determination.

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Sapphire crystal from Kataragama, Sri Lanka
Geology of Corundum and Emerald Gem Deposits

Over the last two decades, knowledge of the formation of gem deposits has improved significantly. This article reviews the state of our knowledge of the geology and genesis of gem corundum and emerald deposits.

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Confocal Raman spectroscopy
A Review of Analytical Methods Used in Geographic Origin Determination of Gemstones

Geographic origin determination relies on a combination of gemological observations and advanced analytical tools. This contribution reviews the analytical methods commonly used to establish origin.

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