A newcomer (since 1998) as a supplier of rough diamonds to the world market, Canada is currently the seventh most important diamond producer by weight and fifth by value. This article chronicles the history of the exploration for, and discovery of, primary diamond deposits throughout Canada (538 kimberlites are currently reported), with particular emphasis on the important kimberlite pipes in the Northwest Territories. Typically, these pipes are small but have high diamond grades. Sales of the rough diamonds, and the fledgling cutting and polishing industry in Canada, are described, along with branding initiatives and the marketing strategies of the producers. Canada will become an increasingly significant supplier of rough diamonds as prolific new mines start production, and this will have a growing impact on the world diamond industry.