Sri Lanka: From Mine to Market, Part 1
September 30, 2014
In this field report, we take you on an expedition to this magnificent island and its remarkable mine-to-market industry.
An Amazing IslandTravelling in Sri Lanka, you realise it is a large island with very diverse environments. Most of the terrain consists of flat or rolling hills, but there are beautiful mountains in the southern central interior. Agriculture is a constant presence as you drive around the country, with intense green rice fields and rubber tree plantations.
In Elahera’s rice fields, there are treehouses for agricultural workers to climb into when a herd of wild elephants passes through. In Ratnapura, Elahera and Balangoda, green rice fields also enclose small pit-mining operations, sometimes covered with V-shaped roofs for a little protection from rain and sun. Gaining elevation, you encounter beautiful tea plantations where it is common to see workers picking tea leaves by hand. Driving along the coast offers views of Sri Lanka’s beautiful coastline and fishing industry.
History, Culture and PeopleIt is believed that Sri Lanka has been inhabited by humans for more than 300,000 years. The main ethnic group is the Sinhalese, representing about 73 percent of the population. They arrived from India in about the late sixth century BC. Buddhism came to Sri Lanka around the third century BC, and today it is the main religion of the Sinhalese people and the island. The Tamil people, from the Tamil area of India, are primarily Hindu. There is also an important Muslim and Christian population, leading to a rich diversity that is reflected in domestic jewellery design preferences, especially for weddings.
Sri Lanka's rich cultural heritage has become a major tourist attraction as visitors seek to learn more about this island and its people, which in turn has stimulated the economy. One of the cultural heritage sights we visited as we traveled to gem mining areas was Sigiriya, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
In documenting Sri Lanka’s entire mine-to-market industry, one of the most fascinating aspects is the harmonious and productive blend of tradition, experience and modernisation. This was apparent in the mining, trading, cutting, treatment, jewellery manufacturing and retail sectors. Mining is done primarily by traditional methods, and it is small-scale by choice and design. Cutting is a fascinating blend of hand-powered techniques, utilising some of the world’s greatest expertise in orientation of rough, and a growing precision cutting and recutting industry that maintains the strictest tolerances.
Tradition, Experience and Modernisation: The Best of All Worlds
The trading sector combines knowledge and experience acquired over decades, if not centuries, with modern global business models. Just as mastering sapphire heat treatment helped the Thais become dominant players in the global corundum market, the Sri Lankans have great expertise in getting the best yield and colour out of sapphire.
Jewellery design and manufacturing is directly tied to the domestic retail market as well as the market for Sri Lankans living abroad. Traditional 22K gold jewellery is in high demand for weddings as well as for investments and as a financial asset to pawn in times of need. At the same time, the market has adjusted to a younger generation with more varied tastes, while aiming to increase tourist purchases and broaden export markets.
Pits, Mud, Gravel and GemstonesGemstone mining in Sri Lanka is mostly from secondary deposits. The gravels yield sapphire, ruby, cat’s-eye and other chrysoberyls, spinel, garnet, beryl, tourmaline, topaz, quartz and many other gemstones. Sri Lanka’s gem-bearing gravels, called illam, are some of the richest in the world. The island was blessed with geological conditions that provide an ideal blend of chemistry, heat, pressure, time for gem crystals to grow, and weathering for the gem crystals to be deposited and concentrated in gravels.
Besides the well-known Pangaea, which existed about 300 million years ago, there were several other supercontinents in Earth’s early history. Their assembly and breakup cycles helped form most of the world’s gem deposits. Some of these cycles are directly related to gem formation in Sri Lanka.
Assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent was a slow process that took place over millions of years, between 550 and 950 million years ago (Ma), when global forces led to large-scale structural changes in the earth’s crust and upper mantle. The resulting collisions formed the Mozambique Belt, which extends from Mozambique to Ethiopia and Sudan, and also covers most of Madagascar, the southern tip of India, Sri Lanka and the east coast of Antarctica. Sri Lanka occupied a critical area of Gondwana, and many of its gemstones are believed to have formed between 539 and 608 Ma, a time of peak metamorphism for the area.
Most of the gem deposits are in an area called the Highland Complex, extending northeast to southwest and containing high-grade metamorphic rocks. One major primary sapphire deposit was discovered by accident in 2012 near Kataragama, but it was not producing at the time of our visit, and subsequent mining of the area has produced no commercial yields. A full geological study of the deposit has not been performed, however, so the true potential of this area remains unknown.
Sri Lanka’s commercially important coloured gemstone deposits come from weathered alluvial gravels. We visited the mining areas around Ratnapura, Balangoda and Elahera. Although these make up only a small percentage of the island’s gem deposits, they gave us a representative overview of mining operations throughout the country. All of these were secondary gravel deposits. We did not find any active primary deposits at the time of our visit.
MiningMining licences in Sri Lanka are regulated by the National Gem and Jewellery Authority (NGJA). Of the more than 6,500 licences issued in 2013, more than 6,000 were for pit-mining operations using traditional methods. The remainder went to river and mechanised mining. Licensing for mechanised mining follows very strict guidelines, and only about ten were issued in 2013.
Many of the trade and regulatory bodies in Sri Lanka are against large-scale gemstone mining. They consider traditional small-scale mines less harmful to the environment and a more stable source of employment for more people.
To give an idea of scale, the standard pit mine in Sri Lanka consists of a vertical shaft that measures two by four metres. If the pits are deep and in harder ground, the miners might dig a two by two metre square pit or a two-metre round pit. Depth can range up to 50 metres, though most pits are between 5 and 25 metres.
Many of the licensees have four to five traditional mining pits on their property. It’s estimated that more than two million pits have been dug over the last 50 years. Compared to gem mining in many African countries, there are hardly any unfilled, abandoned pits. This is partly because the National Gem and Jewellery Authority (NGJA) collects a cash deposit when a licence is issued. If the mine owner does not rehabilitate the land after mining is complete, the NGJA uses the deposit money for that purpose.
There are usually several people involved in the venture, including the landowner, the holder of the mining rights, the person who supplies the water pump to remove water from the pit and the miners. They all receive a share of the proceeds from the sale of the gemstones.
Although not as prominent, river mining is another traditional form of gem mining in Sri Lanka. Rivers in gem-producing areas can contain alluvial deposits where the river bends or otherwise slows down. The river miners pick these slow-moving areas in relatively shallow waters and build a dam of wood or rock where the water slows, allowing it to escape from one side while trapping the gravels.
Using metal blades attached perpendicularly to long wooden poles called mammoties, the miners scoop up the gravel and remove the overburden until they reach the illam. Then they use long pointed steel rods to loosen the illam and drag it up, allowing the rushing water to wash the gem-bearing gravel. They remove any visible gemstones, and the remaining gravel can undergo further washing.
Mechanised mining occurs when it’s determined that traditional methods won’t apply to the deposit at hand, if the concentration of gems is too low for pit mining, or if the threat of illegal mining activity requires quick mining of the deposit. There are a limited number of mechanised operations, and the requirements are stringent.
CuttingIt is easy to overlook the importance of traditional cutting in Sri Lanka, which is often associated with bulky cuts. These traditional cutters use simple hand-powered cutting machines to produce some of the best-oriented stones in the world. Their ability to orient a stone for the best face-up colour or placement of a star or cat’s-eye, while retaining maximum weight from the rough, is remarkable.
Traditional cutting may in fact be the best technique for some high-end sapphires or stones where the placement of colour is critical. There is also a growing demand for Sri Lankan recutting to meet customer specifications. Global clients have different proportion expectations—some allow windows, for instance—and recutting stones that have already been oriented for best colour can make them less bulky. The cutters can remove enough windowing to suit a customer’s needs while retaining as much weight as possible. There is also a growing precision-cutting industry in Sri Lanka that meets the strictest tolerances of proportion, symmetry and calibrated size tolerances.
Surpassed by Thailand in the 1970s and ’80s, Sri Lanka has modified its business strategy and import/export regulations to restore its position as a major global power in coloured gemstone trading. By simplifying the import process and removing prohibitive duties, Sri Lankan dealers are now able to buy rough sapphire from anywhere in the world, including major sources such as Madagascar. They can apply their knowledge and be competitive in obtaining the raw materials to fuel their industry. Abandoning protectionist import regulations on rough from foreign sources has actually saved Sri Lanka's gemstone industry from remaining a smaller player. A smoother export process has also attracted foreign buyers to the country.
We visited Sri Lankan dealers in Colombo and Beruwala, as well as mine markets in Ratnapura, Balangoda and Elahera. The mine markets were bustling with activity among Sri Lankan dealers and foreign buyers. The dealers were often in the outdoor street markets and in offices or cutting facilities. There were also heat treaters, known as burners, at all of the major markets. Many of the foreign buyers sought the guidance of a trusted local dealer who would have other dealers bring in goods for sale. These trusted dealers would also be consulted for quality, price and the potential for recutting and further heating.
New consumer markets such as China have revitalised gem trading in Sri Lanka. This has led to increased imports from global sources, while fuelling the need for Sri Lankan dealers’ expertise and experience to satisfy the demands of Chinese manufacturing and domestic consumption.
In Part Two, we will reveal aspects of the Sri Lankan gemstone and jewellery industry that have seldom been covered, especially by outsiders. The country’s jewellery manufacturing and retail industries are very dynamic, blending strong traditions with important innovations. These sectors of the Sri Lankan industry are very different from their counterparts in other parts of the world such as the United States, Europe, Japan and China. We will show you the sites we visited so you can get a better sense of this famous and exotic trade centre.
Andrew Lucas is manager of field gemmology at GIA in Carlsbad, California. Armil Sammoon is a member of the board of directors of the National Gem and Jewellery Authority, the chairman of the Sapphire Capital Group, and a chairman of the Sri Lanka Gem and Jewellery Association. A. P. Jayarajah is CEO of Wellawatta Nithyakalyani Jewellery and chairman of the Sri Lanka Gem and Jewellery Association. Tao Hsu is technical editor of Gems & Gemology and Pedro Padua is a video producer, both at GIA in Carlsbad.
GIA staff often visit mines, manufacturers, retailers and others in the gem and jewellery industry for research purposes and to gain insight into the marketplace. GIA appreciates the access and information provided during these visits. These visits and any resulting articles or publications should not be taken or used as an endorsement.
The authors would like to thank the following individuals and groups for making this expedition possible and for helping us obtain the knowledge we can now share. The GIA team especially thanks the Sri Lankan authors, all the members and organisations of the Sri Lankan gem and jewellery industry, and the extremely warm, hospitable people of Sri Lanka. Also, author Andrew Lucas would like to thank videographer and co-author Pedro Padua for his tireless hard work in the field, taking readers to these locations and revealing the stunning images.
Faiq Rehan, managing director of Precision Lapidaries
Sujitha Traditional Jewellery Workshop
N. Rengarajan, proprietor of Ravi Jewellers
V. Rishanthan, director of Ravi Jewellers
J. Sasikumaran, factory manager of Wellawatta Nithyakalyani Jewellery
Y. P. Sivakumar, partner at Wellawatta Nithyakalyani Jewellery
Prof. P. G. R. Dharmaratne, former chairman of the National Gem and Jewellery Authority
Ajith Siriwardena, deputy superintendent of Sri Lanka Customs
Saman K. Amarasena, owner of Swiss Cut Lapidary and a vice chairman of the Sri Lanka Gem and Jewellery Association
A. H. M. Imtizam, president of Gem Paradise
H. C. J. Bandara
N. S. Vasu of Devi Jewellers
N. Seenivasagam, chairman of Devi Jewellers Ltd.
S. Ramesh Khanth, managing director of Devi Gold Cast Pvt. Ltd.
M. S. M. Fazli, Saleems Limited
Juzar Adamaly, chairman of Facets Sri Lanka
Ruzwan Kamil, managing director of MSM Kamil, Exporter of Fine Gemstones
W. D. Nandasari, managing director of Sapphire Gems
Nabeel Salie FJC, The Fine Jewellery Company
Altaf Iqbal, managing director of Regal Gems Ltd.
M. T. M. Haris, Emteem Gem Laboratory
M. L. M. Sanoon, proprietor of San Gems
Roshen Weereratne, project coordinator at Facets Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka Gem and Jewellery Association
National Gem and Jewellery Authority of Sri Lanka
International Colored Gemstone Association