Gems & Gemology
Winter 2017, Vol. 53, No. 4

Suggested Reading on Rubies and Their Inclusions

Anderson B.W. (1949) Reconstructed rubies. G&G, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 187–190.
 
Bowersox G.W., Foord E.E., Laurs B.M., Shigley J.E., Smith C.P. (2000) Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan. G&G, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 110–126, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.36.2.110
 
Chapin M., Pardieu V., Lucas A. (2015) Mozambique: A ruby discovery for the 21st century. G&G, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 44–54, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.51.1.44
 
Dirlam D.M., Misiorowski E.B., Tozer R., Stark K.B., Bassett A.M. (1992) Gem wealth of Tanzania. G&G, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 80–102, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.28.2.80
 
Emmett J., Scarratt K., McClure S.F., Moses T., Douthit T.R., Hughes R., Novak S., Shigley J.E., Wang W., Bordelon O., Kane R.E. (2003) Beryllium diffusion of ruby and sapphire. G&G, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 84–135, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.39.2.84
 
Gübelin E.J. (1940) Characteristics of Ceylon rubies. G&G, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 121–124.
 
——— (1940) Differences between Burma and Siam rubies. G&G, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 69–72.
 
——— (1944) Gemstone inclusions - Ruby. G&G, Vol. 4, No. 11, pp. 158–163.
 
——— (1949) Observations on reconstructed rubies. G&G, Vol. 6, No. pp. 186–187.
 
——— (1960) More light on beryls and rubies with synthetic overgrowth. G&G, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 105–113.
 
——— (1982) New synthetic rubies made by Professor P.O. Knischka. G&G, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 165–168, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.18.3.165
 
Gübelin E.J., Meyer H.O.A. (1981) Ruby in diamond. G&G, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 153–156, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.17.3.153
 
Hänni H.A., Schmetzer K. (1991) New rubies from the Morogoro area, Tanzania. G&G, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 156–167, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.27.3.156
 
Hänni H.A., Schmetzer K., Bernhardt H.J. (1994) Synthetic rubies by Douros: A new challenge for gemologists. G&G, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 72–86, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.30.2.72
 
Holmes R.J. (1947) The new Linde Stars man-made star rubies and star sapphires. G&G, Vol. 5, No. 11, pp. 452–456, 478–479.
 
Howell D.H. (1936) The ruby mines of Burma - Part 1 and 2. G&G, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2, pp. 3–6, 31–34.
 
Huong L.T.T., Häger T., Hofmeister W., Hauzenberger C., Schwarz D., Long P.V., Wehrmeister U., Khoi N.N., Nhung N.T. (2012) Gemstones from Vietnam: An update. G&G, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 158–176, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.48.3.158
 
Kammerling R.C., Keller A.S., Scarratt K.V., Repetto S. (1994) Update on mining rubies and fancy sapphires in Northern Vietnam. G&G, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 109–114, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.30.2.109
 
Kane R.E. (1979) Synthetic rubies. G&G, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 206–207.
 
——— (1983) The Ramaura synthetic ruby. G&G, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 130–148, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.19.3.130
 
——— (1984) Natural rubies with glass-filled cavities. G&G, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 187–199, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.20.4.187
 
——— (1985) A preliminary report on the new Lechleitner synthetic ruby and synthetic blue sapphire. G&G, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 35–39, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.21.1.35
 
Kane R.E., Kammerling R.C. (1992) Status of ruby and sapphire mining in the Mogok Stone Tract. G&G, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 152–174, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.28.3.152
 
Kane R.E., McClure S.F., Kammerling R.C., Khoa N.D., Mora C., Repetto S., Khai N.D., Koivula J.I. (1991) Rubies and fancy sapphires from Vietnam. G&G, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 136–155, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.27.3.136
 
Keller P.C. (1982) The Chanthaburi-Trat gem field, Thailand. G&G, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 186–196, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.18.4.186
 
——— (1983) The rubies of Burma: A review of the Mogok Stone Tract. G&G, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 209–219, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.19.4.209
 
Kissin A.J. (1994) Ruby and sapphire from the Southern Ural Mountains, Russia. G&G, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 243–252, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.30.4.243
 
Koivula J.I., Johnson M.L. (1996) Rubies from Madagascar. G&G, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 133–135.
 
Koivula J.I., Kammerling R.C. (1988) Gem News: Ruby receives highest price at auction. G&G, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 252.
 
——— (1988) A gemological look at Kyocera’s new synthetic star ruby. G&G, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 237–240, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.24.4.237
 
Liddicoat R.T. (1969) Kashan flux grown rubies. G&G, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 30–34.
McClure S.F., Kammerling R.C., Fritsch E. (1993) Update on diffusion-treated corundum: Red and other colors. G&G, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 16–28, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.29.1.16
 
McClure S.F., Smith C.P., Wang W., Hall M. (2006) Identification and durability of lead glass-filled rubies. G&G, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 22–34, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.42.1.22
 
Meyer H.O.A., Gübelin E.J. (1981) Ruby in diamond. G&G, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 153–156, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.17.3.153
 
Muhlmeister S., Fritsch E., Shigley J.E., Devouard B., Laurs B.M. (1998) Separating natural and synthetic rubies on the basis of trace-element chemistry. G&G, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 80–101, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.34.2.80
 
Nassau K. (1981) Heat treating ruby and sapphire: Technical aspects. G&G, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 121–131, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.17.3.121
 
Peretti A., Schmetzer K., Bernhardt H.-J., Mouawad F. (1995) Rubies from Mong Hsu. G&G, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 2–26, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.31.1.2
 
Pham V.L., Pardieu V., Giuliani G. (2013) Update on gemstone mining in Luc Yen, Vietnam. G&G, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 233–245, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.49.4.233
 
Schmetzer K., Peretti A. (1999) Some diagnostic features of Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and sapphires. G&G, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 17–28, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.35.1.17
 
Schmetzer K., Schupp F.J. (1994) Flux-induced fingerprint patterns in synthetic ruby: An update. G&G, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 33–38, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.30.1.33
 
Schmetzer K., Hänni H.A., Jegge E.P., Schupp F.J. (1992) Dyed natural corundum as a ruby imitation. G&G, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 112–115, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.28.2.112
 
Schmetzer K., Hänni H.A., Schwarz D. (1996) Trapiche rubies. G&G, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 242–250, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.32.4.242
 
Schmetzer K., Steinbach M.P., Gilg H.A., Blake A.R. (2015) Dual-color double stars in ruby, sapphire and quartz: Cause and historical account. G&G, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 112–143, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.51.2.112
 
Schwarz D., Pardieu V., Saul J.M., Schmetzer K., Laurs B.M., Giuliani G., Klemm L., Malsy A.K., Erel E., Hauzenberger C., Du Toit G., Fallick A.E., Ohnenstetter D. (2008) Rubies and sapphires from Winza, central Tanzania. G&G, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 322–347, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.44.4.322
 
Shor R., Weldon R. (2009) Ruby and sapphire production and distribution: A quarter century of change. G&G, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 236–259, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.45.4.236
 
Smith C.P. (1996) Introduction to analyzing internal growth structures: Identification of the negative d plane in natural ruby. G&G, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 170–184, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.32.3.170
 
——— (2002) Diffusion ruby proves to be synthetic ruby overgrowth on natural corundum. G&G, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 240–248, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.38.3.240
 
Smith C.P., Gübelin E.J., Bassett A.M., Manandhar M.N. (1997) Rubies and fancy-color sapphires from Nepal. G&G, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 24–41, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.33.1.24
 
Sorokina E.S., Litvinenko A.K., Hofmeister W., Häger T., Jacob D.E., Nasriddinov Z.Z. (2015) Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. G&G, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 160–175, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.51.2.160
 
Spaulding D.L. (1956) The ruby mines of Mogok, Burma. G&G, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 335–342.
Vertriest W., Pardieu V. (2016) Update on gemstone mining in northern Mozambique. G&G, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 404–409, http://dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.52.4.404

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