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Honey yellow. Fiery orange. Cyclamen pink. Icy blue. In warm or cool tones, topaz is a lustrous and brilliant gem.

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Reddish Pleochroism

Topaz’s reddish pleochroic color often appears at the ends of cut gems.

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Prized Color

Rich reddish orange is one of this gem's most coveted colors.

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Long Oval

Because topaz crystals are typically elongated, polished gems are often cut long.

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Columnar Crystal

This topaz crystal has a columnar prism with a “chisel-like” termination.

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Basal Cleavage

Parallel to the base of the crystal are weaker bonds between the atoms.

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The color the trade calls imperial topaz is highly prized and very rare.

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About Topaz

about topaz

Topaz actually has an exceptionally wide color range that, besides brown, includes various tones and saturations of blue, green, yellow, orange, red, pink, and purple. Colorless topaz is plentiful, and is often treated to give it a blue color. Topaz is also pleochroic, meaning that the gem can show different colors in different crystal directions.

Topaz Description

Topaz History and Lore

Topaz Journey

Birthstones & Anniversaries

Precious topaz is a birthstone for November and blue topaz is a birthstone for December. Blue topaz is the gem of the 4th anniversary and Imperial topaz is the gem of the 23rd anniversary.


The royal court in Portugal celebrates the discovery of Imperial topaz in 1768.

271 kilos

A transparent topaz crystal discovered in Minas Gerais, Brazil weighs an astounding 596 pounds.

10 MeV

Irradiating colorless topaz with electrons at energy of 10 million electron volts creates a sky blue color.


  • Mineral: Topaz
  • Chemistry: Al2(F,OH)2SiO4
  • Color: Yellow, orange, brown, pink to red to purple red, blue, light green and colorless
  • Refractive index: 1.619 to 1.627
  • Birefringence: 0.008 to 0.010
  • Specific gravity: 3.53
  • Mohs Hardness: 8


There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems.

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Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.

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Any gem can be imitated—sometimes by manmade materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem.

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gem love

Why We Love This Gemstone


Topaz comes in some of the gem world’s largest crystals: the largest are kilos, not carats.


Faceted topaz takes such a high polish it’s slightly slippery to the touch.


Topaz is pleochroic, displaying different colors in different crystal directions.

Quality Factors

Topaz comes in a variety of colors from shades of blue to the rare reddish imperial colors.


quality factors

The most valued topaz colors are orangy red to red. Blue gems are widely available.


quality factors

Topaz used in jewelry is typically eye clean with no visible inclusions.


quality factors

Topaz crystals are usually columnar, and cut as oval or pear shapes to improve yield.

Carat Weight

quality factors

Topaz often forms as large crystals. These can yield sizable cut gems.

Topaz Quality Factors: The Comprehensive Guide


Explore sources, gemological research, and the role of gems in history.

Topaz from Pakistan with microlite inclusions.

Microlite Crystals in Topaz from Pakistan

Jaroslav Hyršl , Aug 9, 2018 Read Article
imperial flame topaz

Cutting the ‘Imperial Flame’ Topaz

Duncan Pay , Apr 28, 2016 Read Article
Brazilian colorless topaz with molybdenite inclusions.

Molybdenite in Topaz

John I. Koivula , Nov 23, 2015 Read Article
Pinkish orange inclusion in topaz.

Quarterly Crystal: Triplite in Topaz

John I. Koivula , Aug 3, 2016 Read Article