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Near-colorless and Fancy Vivid purplish pink CVD synthetic diamonds
Observations on CVD-Grown Synthetic Diamonds: A Review

Explores statistical data and defining characteristics of gem-quality CVD synthetic diamonds examined by GIA since 2003.

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Drilled natural pearls examined in this study.
Saltwater Pearls from the Pre- to Early Columbian Era: A Gemological and Radiocarbon Dating Study

Examines 85 saltwater natural pearls, reportedly harvested from the Caribbean islands off the coast of Venezuela during the early 16th century, to determine their age.

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A blue synthetic star sapphire from past production of Wiede’s Carbidwerk
Synthetic Star Sapphires and Rubies Produced by Wiede’s Carbidwerk, Freyung, Germany

Details the process used by Wiede’s Carbidwerk to produce star synthetic corundum from the mid-1950s through the 1970s.

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Richard Nacken in 1907
Synthetic Emeralds Grown by Richard Nacken in the Mid-1920s: Properties, Growth Technique, and Historical Account

Describes the chemical, morphological, and microscopic properties of the first gem-quality synthetic emeralds ever produced, offering a historical perspective on their development.

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Assortment of Linde synthetic star rubies and sapphires
Dual-Color Double Stars in Ruby, Sapphire, and Quartz: Cause and Historical Account

Examines a form of asterism comprising two six-rayed stars, one white and one that exhibits the stone’s bodycolor. Firsthand accounts and a survey of patent documents reveal that diffusion has been used to create or enhance this optical phenomenon in synthetic and possibly natural corundum since the 1950s.

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