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Experimental steps of DNA extraction and purification.
DNA Techniques Applied to the Identification of Pinctada Fucata Pearls from Uwajima, Ehime Prefecture, Japan

Shows how genetic material extracted from small amounts of pearl powder can be a useful indicator of this akoya cultured pearl species.

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Rough and faceted natural-color green diamonds.
Natural-Color Green Diamonds: A Beautiful Conundrum

Characterizes diamonds with exceptionally rare natural green color, based on GIA’s extensive database of samples.

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Rough CLIPPIR diamonds
The Very Deep Origin of the World’s Biggest Diamonds

Explores an exceptional family of diamonds, referred to as “CLIPPIR” (Cullinan-like, Large, Inclusion-Poor, Pure, Irregular, and Resorbed), that formed in a superdeep environment.

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Bracelet containing akoya cultured pearls from Australia
Akoya Cultured Pearl Farming in Eastern Australia

Characterizes the akoya cultured pearls produced on the eastern shoreline of Australia using native Pinctada imbricata fucata mollusks.

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Major colors of HPHT synthetic diamonds
Observations on HPHT-Grown Synthetic Diamonds: A Review

Summarizes statistical data and distinctive features of several thousand gem-quality HPHT synthetic diamonds examined by GIA from 2007 through 2016.

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Emerald crystals from Colombia, Afghanistan, and Zambia
Photoluminescence Spectra of Emeralds from Colombia, Afghanistan, and Zambia

Compares PL spectroscopy data of 48 emerald samples from three countries to evaluate the usefulness of the technique in geographic origin determination.

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Particolor tourmaline crystal from Luc Yen, Vietnam
An Update on Tourmaline from Luc Yen, Vietnam

Reviews the characteristics of tourmaline from pegmatites in the Luc Yen district of northern Vietnam.

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Diamond octahedron, diamond bort, and carbonado
Carbonado Diamond: A Review of Properties and Origin

Presents a detailed examination of about 800 samples of carbonado diamond from Brazil and the Central African Republic, including possible models for its genesis.

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Article
GIA Gem Project
Beryl

Chemically pure beryl is colorless, but trace elements give rise to green, blue and pink/red colors.

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Garnet
Article
GIA Gem Project
Garnet

Often thought of as a deep red gemstone, garnet can also be yellow, orange, green or brown – any color except blue.

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