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Citrine is the transparent, pale yellow to brownish orange variety of quartz.

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Fashioned citrines can be large. This one weighs almost twenty carats.

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The lack of eye-visible inclusions is a sought-after citrine quality.

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Yellow, reddish orange, and brown color zoning highlight this citrine.

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Reddish orange

This attractive reddish orange color is popular with consumers.

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Large crystals

This 65.50-carat rough will yield a significant faceted gem.

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This citrine crystal terminates in a well-shaped point.

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About Citrine

About Citrine

Citrine is rare in nature. In the days before modern gemology, its tawny color caused it to be confused with topaz. Today, its attractive color, plus the durability and affordability it shares with most other quartzes, makes it the top-selling yellow-to-orange gem. In the contemporary market, citrine’s most popular shade is an earthy, deep, brownish or reddish orange.

Citrine Description

Citrine History and Lore

Birthstones & Anniversaries

Along with topaz, citrine is a birthstone for November. It’s also recognized as the gem that commemorates the thirteenth anniversary.


A trace of iron in citrine’s structure is responsible for its yellow-to-orange color.


Natural citrine is rare. Most citrine on the market is the result of heat treatment of amethyst.


Citrine is recognized as one of the most popular and frequently purchased yellow gemstones.


  • Mineral: Quartz
  • Chemical composition: SiO2
  • Color: Yellow to orange to orangy red
  • Refractive index: 1.544 to 1.553
  • Specific gravity: 2.66 (+0.03/-0.02)
  • Mohs hardness: 7


There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems.

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Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.

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Any gem can be imitated—sometimes by manmade materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem.

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gem love

Why We Love This Gemstone


Even fine citrine has a modest price tag. Large gems remain affordable, as price per carat does not rise dramatically for larger sizes.


Giant hollow crystal-lined amethyst geodes from areas like Brazil are often heated to become giant citrine “cathedrals.”


In Bolivia, amethyst and citrine colors can occur together in the same crystal. These unique gems are called ametrine.

Quality Factors

The following factors combine to determine a citrine’s value.


quality factors

Vivid yellows, reddish oranges, and earth tones are popular with consumers.


quality factors

Eye-visible inclusions are not common in citrine. If present, they decrease its value.


quality factors

Citrine might be carved, custom-cut, or calibrated for jewelry use.

Carat Weight

quality factors

Citrine is available in a wide range of sizes for setting into a variety of jewelry styles.

Citrine Quality Factors: The Comprehensive Guide


Explore sources, gemological research, and the role of gems in history.

Zambia Cut Citrines

Citrine from Zambia

Donna Beaton , Apr 2, 2014 Read Article
Smoky Quartz Ametrine from the Yuruty Mine

Ametrine with Layers of Smoky Quartz

Dr. Michael S. Krzemnicki , Jun 1, 2000 Read Article