Inclusions in Natural, Synthetic and Treated Ruby
Nathan D. Renfro, John I. Koivula, Jonathan Muyal, Shane F. McClure, Kevin Schumacher, and James E. Shigley, January 26, 2018
Provides a visual guide to the internal features of natural, synthetic and treated rubies.
Synthetic Star Sapphires and Rubies Produced by Wiede’s Carbidwerk, Freyung, Germany
Karl Schmetzer, H. Albert Gilg, and Heinz-Jürgen Bernhardt, November 8, 2017
Details the process used by Wiede’s Carbidwerk to produce star synthetic corundum from the mid-1950s until the 1970s.
Saltwater Pearls from the Pre- to Early Columbian Era: A Gemmological and Radiocarbon Dating Study
Chunhui Zhou, Gregory Hodgins, Todd Lange, Kazuko Saruwatari, Nicholas Sturman, Lore Kiefert, and Klaus Schollenbruch, November 8, 2017
Examines 85 saltwater natural pearls, reportedly harvested from the Caribbean islands off the coast of Venezuela during the early 16th century, to determine their age.
Near-Colourless HPHT Synthetic Diamonds from AOTC Group
Ulrika F.S. D’Haenens-Johansson, Kyaw Soe Moe, Paul Johnson, Shun Yan Wong, Ren Lu, and Wuyi Wang, April 30, 2014
Presents the gemmological and spectroscopic properties of a suite of synthetic diamonds grown by AOTC using high pressure and high temperature.
The 3543 CM-1 Infrared Absorption Band in Natural and Synthetic Amethyst and its Value in Identification
Vladimir S. Balitsky, Denis V. Balitsky, June 1, 2004
The proper use and limitations of IR spectroscopy for identifying natural versus synthetic amethyst of various types have been investigated, focusing on the region 3800–3000 cm-1.
Grey-To-Blue-To-Violet Hydrogen-Rich Diamonds from the Argyle Mine, Australia
Carolyn H. van der Bogert, Christopher P. Smith, Thomas Hainschwang, and Shane F. McClure
The Argyle diamond mine is the only known source of type IaB hydrogen- and nitrogen-rich diamonds coloured grey to blue to violet.
Strongly Coloured Pink CVD Lab-Grown Diamonds
Wuyi Wang, March 1, 2010
Pink CVD lab-grown products can be separated from natural and treated-colour natural pink diamonds by a combination of gemmological and spectroscopic properties, which are explored in this study.
CVD Synthetic Diamonds from Gemesis Corp
Wuyi Wang, Ulrika F. S. D’Haenens-Johansson, Paul Johnson, Kyaw Soe Moe, Erica Emerson, Mark E. Newton, and Thomas M. Moses, June 1, 2012
An examination of the gemmological and spectroscopic properties of CVD synthetic diamonds from Gemesis Corp.
Celebrating 75 Years of Gems & Gemology
Stuart Overlin and Dona M. Dirlam
Gems & Gemology, the professional quarterly of GIA, debuted in 1934
The “Type” Classification System of Diamonds and Its Importance in Gemmology
Christopher M. Breeding and James E. Shigley, June 1, 2009
Knowledge of type allows gemmologists to better evaluate if a diamond might be treated or synthetic, and whether it should be sent to a laboratory for testing.