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Micro-Features of Ruby
Inclusions in Natural, Synthetic and Treated Ruby

Provides a visual guide to the internal features of natural, synthetic and treated rubies.

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“Diffusion Ruby” Proves to be Synthetic Ruby Overgrowth on Natural Corundum

A relatively new production of red corundum, reportedly from Bangkok, has been offered for sale in recent years.

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Hydrothermal Synthetic Red Beryl from the Institute of Crystallography, Moscow

Hydrothermal synthetic red beryl has been produced for jewellery applications.

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Some Diagnostic Features of Russian Hydrothermal Synthetic Rubies and Sapphires

Most Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and pink, orange, green, blue and violet sapphires—coloured by chromium and/or nickel—reveal diagnostic zigzag or mosaic-like growth structures associated with colour zoning.

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Separating Natural and Synthetic Rubies on the Basis of Trace-Element Chemistry

Natural and synthetic gem rubies can be separated on the basis of their trace-element chemistry.

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Introduction to Analysing Internal Growth Structures: Identification of the Negative d Plane in Natural Ruby

This article presents the methods and instruments needed to analyse the internal growth structures of corundum.

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Synthetic Rubies by Douros: A New Challenge for Gemmologists

Greek manufacturer J. & A. Douros introduced a new flux synthetic ruby in early 1993.

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Flux-Induced Fingerprint Patterns in Synthetic Ruby: An Update

Some manufacturers are known to have treated Verneuil flame-fusion synthetic rubies by immersion in a flux melt to induce patterns like the “fingerprints” seen in some natural rubies.

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A Gemmological Look at Kyocera's New Synthetic Star Ruby
A Gemmological Look at Kyocera's New Synthetic Star Ruby

Kyocera Corporation of Kyoto, Japan, is currently marketing under the trade name "Inamori" a macroscopically natural-appearing semitransparent asteriated synthetic ruby.

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A Preliminary Report on the New Lechleitner Synthetic Ruby and Synthetic Blue Sapphire

A new synthetic ruby and synthetic blue sapphire have been synthesised by Johann Lechleitner of Innsbruck, Austria.

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