Inclusions in Natural, Synthetic and Treated Ruby
Provides a visual guide to the internal features of natural, synthetic and treated rubies.
“Diffusion Ruby” Proves to be Synthetic Ruby Overgrowth on Natural Corundum
A relatively new production of red corundum, reportedly from Bangkok, has been offered for sale in recent years.
Hydrothermal Synthetic Red Beryl from the Institute of Crystallography, Moscow
Hydrothermal synthetic red beryl has been produced for jewellery applications.
Some Diagnostic Features of Russian Hydrothermal Synthetic Rubies and Sapphires
Most Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and pink, orange, green, blue and violet sapphires—coloured by chromium and/or nickel—reveal diagnostic zigzag or mosaic-like growth structures associated with colour zoning.
Separating Natural and Synthetic Rubies on the Basis of Trace-Element Chemistry
Natural and synthetic gem rubies can be separated on the basis of their trace-element chemistry.
Introduction to Analysing Internal Growth Structures: Identification of the Negative d Plane in Natural Ruby
This article presents the methods and instruments needed to analyse the internal growth structures of corundum.
Synthetic Rubies by Douros: A New Challenge for Gemmologists
Greek manufacturer J. & A. Douros introduced a new flux synthetic ruby in early 1993.
Flux-Induced Fingerprint Patterns in Synthetic Ruby: An Update
Some manufacturers are known to have treated Verneuil flame-fusion synthetic rubies by immersion in a flux melt to induce patterns like the “fingerprints” seen in some natural rubies.
A Gemmological Look at Kyocera's New Synthetic Star Ruby
Kyocera Corporation of Kyoto, Japan, is currently marketing under the trade name "Inamori" a macroscopically natural-appearing semitransparent asteriated synthetic ruby.
A Preliminary Report on the New Lechleitner Synthetic Ruby and Synthetic Blue Sapphire
A new synthetic ruby and synthetic blue sapphire have been synthesised by Johann Lechleitner of Innsbruck, Austria.