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Plastic bead with visible fragments of coral.
Coral Inclusions in Plastic

An orangey-red plastic bead is revealed to be a composite when white coral fragments are identified by spectroscopy and gemmological properties.

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Rock crystal coated with brown skin.
Coated Rock Crystal Imitation of Ruby

A coated rough rock crystal resembles a purplish red ruby.

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Olive-green serpentine cabochon.
Serpentine Cabochon with Unusual Olive Green Colour

A green cabochon from China resembling jadeite is found to be antigorite, a member of the serpentine group.

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Synthetic Diamond Articles from Gems & Gemmology

When General Electric created the first gem-quality synthetic diamonds in 1971, the first place the company sent them after cutting was to GIA for examination and research. In the 44 years since then, GIA researchers have closely followed the development of laboratory-created diamonds – from those early experiments to the production of commercial quantities in the gem market.

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Synthetic Ruby Overgrowth on Natural Corundum
Article
Analysis of Synthetic Ruby Overgrowth on Corundum

Analysis of synthetic ruby overgrowth on corundum, using analysis of inclusions, UV-Vis-NIR and EDXRF spectroscopy, and LA-ICP-MS.

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Article
An Introduction to Simulants or Imitation Gem Materials

This article provides an overview of synthetic gem materials.

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Inamori Synthetic Cat's-Eye Alexandrite

This article reports on a detailed gemmological examination of this new synthetic cat's-eye alexandrite.

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The Early History of Gemstone Treatments

The author has uncovered many ancient references to the simulation or enhancement of gemstones.

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Synthetic Gem Materials and Simulants in the 1990s

The 1990s witnessed important developments in the commercial viability of gem-quality synthetic diamonds.

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Characterisation of Colourless Coated Cubic Zirconia (Diamantine)

Over the past several years, diamond simulants have entered the market that consist of colourless cubic zirconia reportedly coated with a thin layer (e.g. represented to be 30–50 nm) of nanocrystalline diamond particles embedded in a matrix.

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