Three-Phase Inclusions in Emerald and Their Impact on Origin Determination
Discusses the role of three-phase inclusions in emerald, in combination with spectroscopy and trace-element analysis, in determining geographic origin.
Emeralds from the Ural Mountains, USSR
Emeralds are again being mined in the historic district of the Ural Mountains. Physical, chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of stones from the recent production are presented and compared with data on older samples as well as those reported in the literature.
Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan
With the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, villagers in the Panjshir Valley are turning their attention to the emerald riches of the nearby Hindu Kush Mountains.
The Lennix Synthetic Emerald
An examination of the gemmological properties of a French flux fusion-grown synthetic emerald.
The Separation of Natural from Synthetic Emeralds by Infrared Spectroscopy
The technique is nondestructive and, with Fourier transform instrumentation, extremely rapid in comparison to most laboratory methods.
The Biron Hydrothermal Synthetic Emerald
A new synthetic emerald exhibits some characteristics that are distinctly different from other synthetic emeralds, such as gold inclusions.
Tourmaline as an Inclusion in Zambian Emeralds
A report on Zambian emeralds with tourmaline inclusions.
Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, Ruby and Spinel
This article reports on three gem materials currently being mined in Pakistan.