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Gemstones

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Accurate Reporting of Key Trace Elements in Ruby and Sapphire Using Matrix-Matched Standards

Presents a group of corundum standards developed by GIA to improve the accuracy and efficiency of its laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) instruments.

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Beryllium Diffusion of Ruby and Sapphire

The heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800°C has become a major issue in the gem trade.

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Rubies and Fancy Sapphires from Vietnam
Rubies and Fancy Sapphires from Vietnam

Gem-quality rubies and pink to purple sapphires are being recovered from the Luc Yen and Quy Chau mining regions of Vietnam.

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Heat Treating Corundum: The Bangkok Operation

An overview of the potential effects that heat treatment can have on corundum.

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Some Diagnostic Features of Russian Hydrothermal Synthetic Rubies and Sapphires

Most Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and pink, orange, green, blue and violet sapphires—coloured by chromium and/or nickel—reveal diagnostic zigzag or mosaic-like growth structures associated with colour zoning.

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Rubies and Fancy-Colour Sapphires from Nepal

Gem-quality rubies and fancy-colour sapphires have been recovered from dolomite marble lenses located high in the Himalayan mountains of east-central Nepal (Ganesh Himal).

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The Rubies of Burma: A Review of the Mogok Stone Tract

A review of the history of this area, its geology, and the mining methods that have predominated.

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Ruby in Diamond

The first substantiated identification of corundum (var. ruby) occurring as an inclusion in natural diamond is presented.

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Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, Ruby and Spinel

This article reports on three gem materials currently being mined in Pakistan.

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Ruby and Sapphire Production and Distribution: A Quarter Century of Change
Ruby and Sapphire Production and Distribution: A Quarter Century of Change

During the past 25 years, the corundum market has been transformed from one of medium to high-priced gems to one that encompasses nearly all price ranges.

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