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Accurate Reporting of Key Trace Elements in Ruby and Sapphire Using Matrix-Matched Standards

Presents a group of corundum standards developed by GIA to improve the accuracy and efficiency of its laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) instruments.

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Micro-Features of Ruby
Inclusions in Natural, Synthetic and Treated Ruby

Provides a visual guide to the internal features of natural, synthetic and treated rubies.

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Update on gemstone mining in Luc Yen, Vietnam

Explores the emergence of the Luc Yen area as a producer of corundum, spinel, tourmaline and other coloured stones.

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A New Method for Detecting Be Diffusion-Treated Sapphires: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

This article describes the first application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to gemmology.

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Beryllium Diffusion of Ruby and Sapphire

The heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800°C has become a major issue in the gem trade.

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“Diffusion Ruby” Proves to be Synthetic Ruby Overgrowth on Natural Corundum

A relatively new production of red corundum, reportedly from Bangkok, has been offered for sale in recent years.

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Hydrothermal Synthetic Red Beryl from the Institute of Crystallography, Moscow

Hydrothermal synthetic red beryl has been produced for jewellery applications.

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Ruby and Sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan
Ruby and Sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

This study provides detailed mining and gemmological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble.

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Some Diagnostic Features of Russian Hydrothermal Synthetic Rubies and Sapphires

Most Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and pink, orange, green, blue and violet sapphires—coloured by chromium and/or nickel—reveal diagnostic zigzag or mosaic-like growth structures associated with colour zoning.

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Separating Natural and Synthetic Rubies on the Basis of Trace-Element Chemistry

Natural and synthetic gem rubies can be separated on the basis of their trace-element chemistry.

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