Three-Phase Inclusions in Emerald and Their Impact on Origin Determination
Discusses the role of three-phase inclusions in emerald, in combination with spectroscopy and trace-element analysis, in determining geographic origin.
Emeralds from the Ural Mountains, USSR
Emeralds are again being mined in the historic district of the Ural Mountains. Physical, chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of stones from the recent production are presented and compared with data on older samples as well as those reported in the literature.
The Separation of Natural from Synthetic Emeralds by Infrared Spectroscopy
The technique is nondestructive and, with Fourier transform instrumentation, extremely rapid in comparison to most laboratory methods.