Beryllium Diffusion of Ruby and Sapphire
The heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800°C has become a major issue in the gem trade.
Heat Treating the Sapphires of Rock Creek, Montana
Renewed interest in large-scale commercial mining of Montana sapphires motivated a detailed study of the heat treatment of sapphire from the Rock Creek deposit.
Update on Diffusion-Treated Corundum: Red and Other Colours
Blue diffusion-treated sapphires have become a subject of considerable controversy since their introduction in significant quantities a few years ago.
Diagnostic Features and Heat Treatment of Kashmir Sapphires
Today, only by combining different gemmological tests with years of practical experience, can a conclusive determination of the origin of a sapphire be made.
The Identification of Blue Diffusion-Treated Sapphires
Blue diffusion-treated sapphires are becoming more prevalent than ever before.
Sapphires from Australia
An overview of Australia's recent significance in the production of blue sapphire.
The Chanthaburi-Trat Gem Field, Thailand
Thailand has become the world's major source of gem ruby.
Heat Treating Corundum: The Bangkok Operation
An overview of the potential effects that heat treatment can have on corundum.
Heat Treating Ruby and Sapphire: Technical Aspects
A review of heat treatment methods available for use on natural or synthetic corundum.
Ruby and Sapphire Production and Distribution: A Quarter Century of Change
During the past 25 years, the corundum market has been transformed from one of medium to high-priced gems to one that encompasses nearly all price ranges.