Accurate Reporting of Key Trace Elements in Ruby and Sapphire Using Matrix-Matched Standards
Presents a group of corundum standards developed by GIA to improve the accuracy and efficiency of its laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) instruments.
Beryllium Diffusion of Ruby and Sapphire
The heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800°C has become a major issue in the gem trade.
Some Diagnostic Features of Russian Hydrothermal Synthetic Rubies and Sapphires
Most Russian hydrothermal synthetic rubies and pink, orange, green, blue and violet sapphires—coloured by chromium and/or nickel—reveal diagnostic zigzag or mosaic-like growth structures associated with colour zoning.
Rubies and Fancy-Colour Sapphires from Nepal
Gem-quality rubies and fancy-colour sapphires have been recovered from dolomite marble lenses located high in the Himalayan mountains of east-central Nepal (Ganesh Himal).
Rubies and Fancy Sapphires from Vietnam
Gem-quality rubies and pink to purple sapphires are being recovered from the Luc Yen and Quy Chau mining regions of Vietnam.
The Rubies of Burma: A Review of the Mogok Stone Tract
A review of the history of this area, its geology, and the mining methods that have predominated.
Gemstones of Pakistan: Emerald, Ruby and Spinel
This article reports on three gem materials currently being mined in Pakistan.
Heat Treating Corundum: The Bangkok Operation
An overview of the potential effects that heat treatment can have on corundum.
Ruby in Diamond
The first substantiated identification of corundum (var. ruby) occurring as an inclusion in natural diamond is presented.
Ruby and Sapphire Production and Distribution: A Quarter Century of Change
During the past 25 years, the corundum market has been transformed from one of medium to high-priced gems to one that encompasses nearly all price ranges.