Photoluminescence Spectra of Emeralds from Colombia, Afghanistan and Zambia
Compares PL spectroscopy data of 48 emerald samples from three countries to evaluate the usefulness of the technique in geographic origin determination.
Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: A Powerful Tool to Identify Natural and Synthetic Emeralds
More than 300 natural and synthetic emeralds from various sources were examined with confocal Raman spectroscopy.
Russian Flux-Grown Synthetic Emeralds
The properties and techniques of flux-grown synthetic emeralds from Russia are discussed.