Photoluminescence Spectra of Emeralds from Colombia, Afghanistan and Zambia
Compares PL spectroscopy data of 48 emerald samples from three countries to evaluate the usefulness of the technique in geographic origin determination.
On the Identification of Various Emerald Filling Substances
Criteria for distinguishing emerald filling substances were investigated.
Emeralds from the Mananjary Region, Madagascar: Internal Features
Mananjary emeralds usually can be separated from emeralds from other localities by means of associations of certain mineral inclusions.
Emeralds from the Ural Mountains, USSR
Emeralds are again being mined in the historic district of the Ural Mountains. Physical, chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of stones from the recent production are presented and compared with data on older samples as well as those reported in the literature.
Fracture Filling of Emeralds Opticon and Traditional "Oils"
The filling of surface-reaching breaks in emeralds is a relatively common practice, for which various kinds of oils and a natural resin have historically been used.
Emeralds of the Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan
With the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, villagers in the Panjshir Valley are turning their attention to the emerald riches of the nearby Hindu Kush Mountains.
The Separation of Natural from Synthetic Emeralds by Infrared Spectroscopy
The technique is nondestructive and, with Fourier transform instrumentation, extremely rapid in comparison to most laboratory methods.
The Coscuez Mine: A Major Source of Colombian Emeralds
The Coscuez mine, one of a number in Colombia, is rapidly gaining significance as a major source of fine emeralds.
A Status Report on Gemstones from Afghanistan
An overview of the plentiful and various gem materials being discovered and produced in Afghanistan.
The Biron Hydrothermal Synthetic Emerald
A new synthetic emerald exhibits some characteristics that are distinctly different from other synthetic emeralds, such as gold inclusions.