Press Release

Researchers Discover the Unique Origin of Blue Diamonds

Blue diamond against a grey background
One of the most famous coloured diamonds in the world is the Hope Diamond, a natural colour Fancy dark greyish blue diamond. The Hope Diamond was graded in 1988 by a team of GIA gemmologists. Photo by Robert Weldon © GIA. Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution.

Boron from ancient ocean floors creates colour in rare ‘superdeep’ diamonds

NEW YORK, NY – 1 Aug 2018 – Blue diamonds, among the rarest of all coloured diamonds, form at extreme depths – approximately four times deeper than most diamonds – and may get their colour from a surprising source: the element boron, contained in the floors of the ancient oceans carried deep into the Earth’s mantle by the movement of tectonic plates, according to new research featured on the cover of Nature, a distinguished international scientific journal.
This was the first study to examine and identify the mineral inclusions in very rare and valuable blue diamonds. Analysing those inclusions demonstrated that the diamonds formed at great depth in the presence of sunken, or “subducted”, ancient oceanic tectonic plates.
“Blue diamonds like the famous Hope Diamond have intrigued scientists for decades, but the rarity and high value of these gems and their near lack of mineral inclusions have been major hurdles to research,” said GIA (Gemological Institute of America) research scientist Dr Evan Smith, the lead author of the Nature article. “The opportunity to study these rare diamonds at GIA gave us an insight into their incredible origin.”
Blue diamonds, also known as type IIb diamonds, derive their colour from minute quantities of boron. The study reveals that blue diamonds originate from depths reaching 410 miles (660 km) or more into the Earth’s lower mantle, where boron is scarce. Mineral inclusions in the blue diamonds show that they formed in deeply subducted oceanic plates. The authors of the study hypothesise that the boron which causes the diamonds’ blue colour may have originated in ancient sea floors that were transported into the interior of the Earth. This is scientifically important because it shows how elements, such as boron, from the surface of the Earth can be recycled deep into the mantle by plate tectonics.
Smith and other researchers from the Carnegie Institution, the University of Cape Town (South Africa) and the University of Padova (Italy) used a variety of analytical techniques to examine the mineral inclusions in 46 blue diamonds submitted to GIA for identification and grading over a two-year period. Non-profit, independent GIA is the global leader in gem research, education, and laboratory identification and grading services.
In addition to insights into the nature of some of the rarest diamonds known, this study also provided further clues to the elemental forces that formed the Earth, including our understanding of mantle geochemistry and plate tectonic processes.
An extended abstract of the paper is available on The paper is available from Nature.
Smith is a research scientist at GIA. His research focus is diamond geology; he was the lead author of a December 2016 article in Science magazine on the origins of diamonds of exceptional size and quality. Smith holds a Ph.D. in geology from the University of British Columbia; he joined GIA in 2015 as part of a postdoctoral research fellowship programme named in honour of GIA’s second president Richard T. Liddicoat, known as the Father of Modern Gemmology. He will present the research at GIA’s International Gemmological Symposium, 7-9 Oct in Carlsbad, CA. For more information on the programme and to register, visit

About GIA

An independent non-profit organisation, GIA (Gemological Institute of America), established in 1931, is recognised as the world’s foremost authority in gemmology. GIA invented the famous 4Cs of Colour, Clarity, Cut and Carat Weight and, in 1953, created the International Diamond Grading System™ which is recognised around the world as the standard for diamond quality.
Through research, education, gemmological laboratory services and instrument development, the Institute is dedicated to ensuring the public trust in gems and jewellery by upholding the highest standards of integrity, academics, science and professionalism.