Historical Reading List: Coloured Gemstones from Sri Lanka


Colored Gemstones from Sri Lanka
A view in Uva province near Badulla, lithograph by J. Needham after original illustration by C.D.C. O’Brien, “A Series of Fifteen Views in Ceylon”, published by Day & Son, London, 1864

For more than twenty centuries, Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) has been a legendary and continuing source of a variety of important coloured gemstones. The island was a midpoint for ancient merchants sailing between the Mediterranean and the East Indies. Many of the classical travellers and writers of antiquity mentioned the occurrence of gemstones on the island, which include corundum, chrysoberyl, spinel, garnet, beryl, tourmaline, topaz and zircon. Almost all of these gems are found in secondary eluvial and alluvial deposits in the central and southern portions of the island. Even today, the country remains one of the most important sources of coloured gemstones.

In the introduction to his 1859 account of the island of Ceylon, James Emerson Tennent wrote the following:

“There is no island in the world that has attracted the attention of authors in so many distant ages and so many different countries as Ceylon. There is no nation in ancient or modern times possessed of a language and a literature, the writers of which have not at some time made it their theme. It's aspect, its religion, its antiquities and productions, have been described as well as by the classic Greeks…, by the Romans; by the writers of China, Burma, India and Kashmir; by the geographers of Arabia and Persia; by the medieval voyagers of Italy and France; by the analysts of Portugal and Spain; and by the merchant adventurers of Holland and topographers of Great Britain.”

HOW TO USE THIS READING LIST

This reading list was compiled to give you an opportunity to learn more about the history of coloured gemstones from Sri Lanka. A number of the articles were published in the 1800s and early 1900s – when many classical gem deposits of historical importance were discovered – and gemmology and mineralogy became sciences. The list is presented in chronological order to emphasise the development of ideas over time. The list is not comprehensive, but a compilation of the sometimes interesting gemmological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked.

Many of the articles exist in the public domain and can be found online at digital libraries such as Hathitrust, Internet Archive or other digital repositories. More recent publications can often be found in libraries, including the Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library. Abstracts of these articles can usually be found on the website of the original journal or magazine, and the article itself is often available for purchase from the publisher.

Regarding the GIA library’s holdings and on-site access, please contact the GIA library in Carlsbad.

Some Observations on Coral, Large Oysters, Rubies, the Growing of a Sort of Ficus Indica, the Gods of the Ceylanese, etc. made in Ceilan by Mr. Strachan, D. Strachan, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 23, No. 282, pp. 1248–1250 (1702).  An early description of ruby from Ceylon.

“A New Account of the East Indies”, A. Hamilton, J. Mosman Printer, Edinburgh, Two volumes (1727 and 1744).  Beginning in 1688, the author, a Scottish sea captain, visited many parts of the East Indies including Sri Lanka over a period of 35 years.  He discusses gems from the island of Ceylon.

Geschichte von Edelgesteinen und den Vornehmsten Reichthümern in Ost- und Westindien [History of Gemstones and the Famous Wealth of the East and West Indies], Unknown author, Hamburgisches Magazin, Vol. 18, pp. 500-543 (1757).  An early description of diamonds, pearls and other gemstones found in India and Ceylon.

Nachricht von den Wunderbaren Electrischen Eigenschaftern eines Edelsteines welcher auf der Insel Ceylon gefunden wird [News of the Wonderful Electrical Properties of a Gemstone that was found on the Island of Ceylon], Unknown author, Hamburgisches Magazin, Vol. 22, pp. 439-445 (1759).  A report of a tourmaline from Ceylon that displayed electrical behaviour.

Beschreibung der Mineralien und Edlen Steine, auf der Insel Ceylon [Description of Minerals and Gemstones from the Island of Ceylon], C.P. Thunberg, Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre, No. 2, pp. 461-475 (1785).  Early description of gem minerals from the island.

Chemische Untersuchung des Zirkonen aus Zeilon [Chemical Investigation of Zircons from Ceylon], J.C. Wiegleb, Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre, No. 2, pp. 139-143 (1787).  An early chemical analysis of zircon.

Chemische Untersuchung des Zirkons [Chemical Investigation of Zircons], M.H. Klaproth, Entdeckungen aus der Naturfunde, Vol. 9, pp. 147-176 (1789).  Early chemical analysis of zircons.  A similar article appeared in Observations et Memoires sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle, et sur les Arts et Metiers, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 179-192 (1790).

“Travels in Europe, Africa and Asia, made between the Years 1770 and 1779”, C.P. Thunberg, F. and C. Rivington Publishers, London, Four volumes (1796).  A brief mention is made of the coloured gemstones from Ceylon in the fourth volume.

Sur les Pierres Appelees Jusquici, par les Naturalistes, Hyacinthe et Jargon de Ceylan [On the Stones called by Naturalists Hyacinth and Jargon of Ceylon], R.J. Haüy, Journal des Mines, Vol. 5, No. 26, pp. 83-96 (1797).  Early study of zircons from the island.

Analyse Comparee des Hyacinthes de Ceylan et d'Expailly [Comparison of Analyses of Hyacinths from Ceylon and Expailly], L.N. Vauquelin, Journal des Mines, Vol. 5, No. 26, pp. 97-118 (1797).  Comparison of chemical analyses of hyacinth zircons from Ceylon and a locality in France.

Abhandlung über den Französischen Hyacinth, über seine Gleichartigkeit mit dem Ceylanschen, und über die Neue Einfache Erde, welcher ein Bestandtheil beyder ist [Treatise on the French Hyacinth (Zircon), on its Uniformity with the Ceylon (Hyacinth), and on a New Elementary Earth (Element), which in Part it is Composed of], L.B. Guyton de Morveau, Chemische Annalen für die Freunde der Naturlehre, No, 2, pp. 45-56 and 97-106 (1798).  Early chemical analyses of zircons.

Observations sur des Cristaux trouvés parmi des Pierres de Ceylan, et qui Paroissent Appartenir à l’espèce du Corindon, vulgairement Spath Admantin [Observations on the Crystals found among the Stones of Ceylon, and which appear to be a variety of Corundum, commonly called Adamantine Spar], R.J. Haüy, Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, Vol. 1, pp. 55-58 (1799).  A description by the famous French mineralogist of corundum crystals from Ceylon.

Analyse de la Tourmaline de Ceylan, ou Tourmaline Verte [Analysis of a Tourmaline from Ceylon, or Green Tourmaline], L.N. Vauquelin, Journal des Mines, Vol. 9, No. 53, pp. 477-479 (1799).  Early study of the chemical composition of a green tourmaline.

“An Account of the Island of Ceylon, containing its History, Geography, Natural History, with the Manners and Customs of its Various Inhabitants”, R. Percival, C. and R. Baldwin, Publishers, London, 420 pp. (1803).  A description of the island with a discussion of its gemstones.

Sur la Mineralogie de l’Isle de Ceylan [On the Mineralogy of the Island of Ceylon], J. De Carro, Bibliotheque Britannique, Vol. 32, pp. 281-285 (1806).  The author provides information on the gem minerals of the island.

“A Description of Ceylon”, J. Cordiner, Longman Hurst Rees and Orme Publishers, London, Two volumes (1807). In the first volume the author mentions the abundance of gemstones on the island.

Memoir upon Zircon, M.E. Chevreul, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 265, pp. 277-279 (1820).  An early chemical study of a gem zircon from Ceylon.

On the Geology and Mineralogy of Ceylon, J. Davy, Transactions of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 5, pp. 311-327 (1821).  A description of gem minerals based on a visit to the island.  A more complete description of the visit appeared in Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, Vol. 16, pp. 5-145 (1822).

Mineralogy of the Island of Ceylon, M. Winslow and F. Hall, American Journal of Science, Vol. 6, pp. 192-195 (1823).  A copy of a letter from an American missionary in Ceylon in which the author briefly discusses the gem minerals found on the island.

“Observations sur Quelques-Uns des Minéraux, soit de L’Isle de Ceylon, soit de la Côte de Coromandel [Observations on some Minerals, from the Island of Ceylon, and from the Coast of Coromandel (India)]”, L. de la Tour and J.L. de Bournon, Freres Tilliard, Paris, 35 pp. (1823).  Early description of gem minerals from Ceylon and southern India.

Analysis of the Cinnamon-Stone of Ceylon, C.G. Gmelin, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 21, pp. 129-132 (1824).  Early analysis of grossular (hessonite) garnet.

Description of Certain Gangues of Spinelle brought from the Island of Ceylon by M. Leschenault de Latour, J.L. de Bournon, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 63, No. 309, pp. 30-36 (1824).  Early study of gem sediments from the island.

Memoire sur quelques Noms de l'Ile de Ceylan, et Particulierement sur celui de Taprobane, sous lequel elle etait connue des Anciens [Memoir on the Various Names of the Island of Ceylon, in Particular the one Taprobane, by which it was known to the Ancients], E. Burnouf, Journal Asiatique, Vol. 8, pp. 129-149 (1826).  A discussion of the various names used historically to refer to the island.

Taprobane, K. Mannert, Geographie von Indien und der Persischen Monarchie bis zum Euphrat, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 204-216 (1829).  Description of Sri Lanka in ancient Greek and Roman writings.

Oriental Accounts of the Precious Minerals, J. Prinsep and R. Kalíkishen, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 1, No. 8, pp. 353–363 (1832).  A discussion of early descriptions of gems from Ceylon.

“Narrative of a Voyage Round the World during the Years 1835, 1836 and 1837”, W.S.W. Ruschenberger, R. Bentley Publishers, London, Vol. 1, 450 pp. (1838).  This book contains a description of Ceylon and its pearl fishery and other gem minerals.

“History of Ceylon”, J. Ribeiro, translated by J. Le Grand, and retranslated by G. Lee, Government Press, Colombo, 278 pp. (1847). A 1685 account by a Portuguese soldier who provides a brief mention of the island’s gemstones.

On the Mineralogy of Ceylon, R. Gygax, Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 1, pp. 1-4 (1848).  Discussion of gems and other minerals on the island.

“Recherches sur la Geographie Ancienne de Ceylan [Studies of the Ancient Geography of Ceylon]”, E. Burnouf, Imprimerie Imperiale, Paris, 116 pp. (1857).  The author discusses aspects of the geography of the island.

“Ceylon – An Account of the Island”, J.E. Tennent, Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts Publishers, London, Two volumes (1859).  One of the earliest scientific accounts of the island of Ceylon, including a description of the gems and how they are found.  The author served as colonial secretary (senior civil servant) for the British government during 1845-1850 on the island. A summary of this book is presented in the North British Review, Vol. 32, No. 163, pp. 188-222 (1860); and in the Eclectic Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 552-566 (1860).

Taprobane, C. Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. 3, pp. 211-224 (1867).  Description of the island from historical sources of information.

Gems and Gem-Digging in Ceylon, Unknown author, Once a Week Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 101, pp. 383-387; and No. 102, pp. 402-404 (1869).  The author discusses digging methods and the types of gemstones found on the island.

Wanderungen auf der Insel Ceylon [Wandering on the Island of Ceylon], Unknown author, Globus, Vol. 16, No. 20, pp. 305-310; No. 21, pp. 321-330; and No. 22, pp. 338-342 (1869).  A description of the island with a mention of the gemstones found there.

Chemical Examination of Oriental Jargon, D. Forbes, Chemical News, Vol. 19, No. 497, pp. 277-278 (1869).  An early study of the chemical composition of gem zircons.

The Jargons and Zircons of Ceylon, M.H. Cochran, Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Vol. 8, pp. 186-188 (1873).  A study of zircons and jargons (non-red gem zircons) from the island.

“L’ile de Ceylan et ses Curiosités Naturelles [The Island of Ceylon and its Natural Curiosities]”, O.L.M. Sachot, V. Sarlit and Sons Publishers, Paris, 364 pp. (1879).  This book on the wonders of Ceylon includes chapters on coloured stones, pearls and diamonds.

“The Voyage of John Huyghen Van Linschoten to the East Indies”, A.C. Burnell, Hakluyt Society, London, Vol. 1, 307 pp. (1885).  Republication of a 1589 book on travels to the East Indies, including a short description of gemstones from Ceylon.

Reports on the Colonial Sections of the Exhibition – Ceylon, H.T. Wood, (Ed.), Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London 1886, William Clowes & Sons, London, pp. 80-84 (1887).  This international exhibition held in London included a display of gemstones from the island of Ceylon.

“All About Gold, Gems and Pearls in Ceylon and Southern India”, Unknown author, A.M. and J. Ferguson Publishers, Colombo (1888). This book presents a compilation of information on gem localities on the island.

Ancient Industries of Ceylon, G. Wall, Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 10, No. 37, pp. 350-364 (1888).  Discussion of ancient industries, including gem mining and manufacturing.

Korund von Ceylon [Corundum from Ceylon], K. Busz, Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie, Vol. 15, pp. 622-632 (1889).  A crystallographic description of corundum crystals from the island.

A Naturalist's Rambles in Ceylon, H. Hensoldt, American Naturalist, Vol. 23, No. 272, pp. 690-707 (1889).  The author mentions the occurrence of gem minerals on the island.

The “Star Stone” Dealers of Ceylon, Unknown author, Jewelers’ Circular and Horological Review, Vol. 29, No. 26, p. 12 (1895). A brief discussion is given of the manufacture of star sapphire and other asteriated gemstones.

Durchsichtiger Blauer Spinell von Ceylon [Transparent Blue Spinel from Ceylon], M. Bauer, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, No. 1, pp. 281-283 (1895).  The author describes blue gem spinel from the island.

Ceylon, L.B. Clarence, Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 168–188 (1897).  A geographical description of the island with a mention of the gems found there.

Chrysoberyllzwilling von Ceylon [Twinned Chrysoberyl Crystals from Ceylon], V. Goldschmidt and H. Preiswerk, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie, Vol. 33, No. 3/5, pp. 455-467 (1900).  A description of twinned chrysoberyl crystals.

Ueber einige Mineralien, Vorwiegend von Ceylon [About several Minerals, mainly from Ceylon], G. Melczer, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie, Vol. 33, No. 3/5, pp. 240-262 (1900).  Description of occurrences of chrysoberyl, spinel and sillimanite.

Krystallographische Studien über Turmalin von Ceylon und einigen Anderen Vorkommen [Kristallographic Studies of Tourmaline from Ceylon and several Other Localities], V. von Worobieff, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 33, No. 3/5, pp. 263-454 (1900).  Crystal morphology studies of tourmalines from various localities.

Ueber die Mineralvorkommen von Ceylon [The Mineral Deposits of Ceylon], F. Grünling, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 33, No. 3/5, pp. 209-239 (1900).  Based on a visit to the island, the author reviews the occurrences of gemstones and other minerals.  A summary of the article appeared in the Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, Vol. 19, pp. 487-488 (1901).

Die Insel Ceylon [The Island of Ceylon], Unknown author, Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 263-268 (1901).  A description of the island with a mention of the gemstones found there.

Gem Mining in Ceylon, E. Huhn, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 71, No. 7, p. 204 (1901).  A brief report on gem mining.

Occurrence of Corundum in Situ near Kandy, Ceylon, A.K. Coomaraswamy, Geological Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 348–350 (1903).  Note on an occurrence where corundum is found in the primary host rock.

Serendibite, a New Borosilicate from Ceylon, G.T. Prior and A.K. Coomaraswamy, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 61, pp. 224-227 (1903). A new gem mineral whose name is derived from Serendib, a historical name for the island.

Gem Sands from Ceylon, E. Vredenburg, Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 44–45 (1904).  Note on a locality where gem minerals are found in beach sands.

Precious Stones in Ceylon, Unknown author, Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. 53, No. 2724, p. 260 (1905). A short discussion of gemstones and how they are found on the island.

Thorianite, a New Mineral from Ceylon, W.R. Dunstan and G.S. Blake, Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Vol. 76, No. 510, pp. 253-265 (1905).  Description of a new slightly radioactive mineral found in the gem gravels of the island.

Report on the Gemming Districts in Ceylon, A.K. Coomaraswamy and J. Parsons, Mineralogical Survey of Ceylon - Administration Reports, No. 10–11 (1905).

The Rocks and Minerals of Ceylon, A.K. Coomaraswamy, Spolia Zeylanica – Ceylon Journal of Science, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 50-66 (1906).  A description of the minerals and gems, and how and where they are found.

Sapphir von Ceylon und Australien [Sapphires from Ceylon and Australia], R. Brauns, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, Vol. 20, pp. 41–51 (1906).  A comparison of gem sapphires from the two countries.

“Mines and Minerals of the British Empire”, R.S.G. Stokes, Edward Arnold, Publishers, London (1908). This book contains a chapter that describes the gem materials found in Ceylon on pages 41-50.

Ceylons Edelsteine [Gemstones from Ceylon], A Eppler, Deutsche Goldschmiede Zeitung, Vol. 12, No. 29, pp. 241-244 (1909).  A brief description of the types of gemstones found.

Ceylon – The Island of Jewels, L. Claremont, Knowledge, Vol. 35, pp. 2-7 (1912). The author gives a detailed description of gem mining and manufacturing in Ceylon.  A similar article by the same author appeared in the Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 74 (13 July), pp. 20-22 (1912).

Adam’s Second Eden, E.R. Scidmore, National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 105–173 (1912).  Description of Ceylon with a mention of the gemstones found there.

Navigation to the Far East under the Roman Empire, W.H. Schoff, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 37, pp. 240-249 (1917).  Discussion of travel during the Roman Empire to Ceylon and other eastern destinations to acquire gems and other precious goods.

Stones of the Nawaratna: Their Mythical Significance and Superstitious Lore, E.J. Wayland, Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 24, No. 68(2), pp. 135–164 (1918).  Discussion of the lore of the Nawaratna, which were jewellery pieces containing nine specific gemstones that were thought to have a protective benefit for the wearer.

Fibrolite (= Sillimanite) as a Gem-stone from Burma and Ceylon, L.J. Spencer, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 91, pp. 107-112 (1920). Description of gem sillimanite.

Gems and Pearls of Ceylon, A. Gibson, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, Vol. 99, No. 616, pp. 657-660; No. 617, pp. 683-687; and No. 618, pp. 696-697 (1922).  A review of gem and pearl production from the island.

Gem-Gathering in Ceylon, T. Bowyer-Bower, Discovery, Vol. 4, No. 46, pp. 267-271 (1923). The gem-manufacturing industry in Ceylon is described.

The Precious Stones of India, Burma and Ceylon, A. Mitter, Calcutta Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 36–55 (1923).  A review of gem occurrences in British India.

Notes on the Sources of Origin of Ceylon Gemstones, E.J. Wayland, Economic Geology, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 514–516 (1923).  Short discussion of the geological origin of the gems of the island.

A Visit to the Gem Districts of Ceylon and Burma, F.D. Adams, Transactions of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 29, pp. 1-34 (1926); Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. 166, pp. 213-246 (1926); and Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1926, pp. 297-318 (1927).  Articles not seen.

The Geology of Ceylon, F.D. Adams, Ceylon Journal of Research, Vol. 1, No. 5 and 6, pp. 425-511 (1929). Article not seen.

Absorption und Lichtbrechung der Roten, Blauen und Violetten Spinelle von Ceylon [Absorption and Light Refraction in Red, Blue and Violet Spinels from Ceylon], K. Schlossmacher, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 72, No. 5/6, pp. 447-475 (1930); and Absorption und Lichtbrechung der Braunen Spinelle von Ceylon [Absorption and Light Refraction in Brown Spinels from Ceylon], Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 370-376 (1931); and Die Farbgebende Substanz der Natürlichen Roten, Blauen, Braunen und Violetten Spinelle von Ceylon [The Colouring Substance in Natural Red, Blue, Brown and Violet Spinel from Ceylon], Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 76, No. 5, pp. 377-385 (1931).  These three articles present a study of coloration and optical properties in coloured spinels.

Lichtbrechung eines Blauvioletten Spinells von Ceylon [Light Refraction by a Blue-Violet Spinel from Ceylon], B. Kornke, Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 214-215 (1931).  Study of the optical properties of a spinel.

A Day in a Ceylon Gem Field, J.L. Gillson, American Mineralogist, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 300-308 (1933).  A visit to an alluvial gem deposit on the island.

Gemming in Ceylon, C. Matthews, The Gemmologist, Vol. 2, No. 20, pp. 242-243 (1933).  A short article on gem collecting on the island.

Mining Sapphires in Ceylon, H. Cohen, The Gemmologist, Vol. 3, No. 32, pp. 231-236 (1934).  The author describes the hunt for alluvial sapphires.

Precious Stones in Ancient Asia: Their Chief Sources as Described by Marco Polo, J. Strachan, The Gemmologist, Vol. 3, No. 30, pp. 173–178 (1934).  Discussion of Ceylon as an ancient gem source.

The Geology of Ceylon, J.S. Coates, Spolia Zeylanica - Ceylon Journal of Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 101-187 (1935). Article not seen.

Magnesium-zinc Spinels from Ceylon, B.W. Anderson and C.J. Payne, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 158, pp. 547-554 (1937).  A mineralogical description of certain gem spinels from the island.

A Rare Blue Spinel, B.W. Anderson and C.J. Payne, The Gemmologist, Vol. 7, No. 81, pp. 87-89 (1938).  Note on an unsual gem spinel from the island.

Gemming in Ceylon, H.V.S. Ratnavira, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 4, p. 51 (1939). A short article on gem mining on the island.

Characteristics of Ceylon Rubies, E.J. Gübelin, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 121-124 (1940).  Inclusions and other distinctive gemmological features of rubies from the island.

Ceylon Andalusite, R.L. Austen, The Gemmologist, Vol. 10, No. 120, pp. 101-104 (1941).  Note on gem andalusite from the island.

Local Peculiarities of Sapphires, E.J. Gübelin, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 34-39; No. 4, pp. 50-54; and No. 5, pp. 66-69 (1942).  A comparison of the features of sapphires from Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

Indian Precious Stones, L.A.N. Iyer, Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 1-54 (1942).  This article provides a description of gemstones from Ceylon.

Gems and Semi-Precious Stones of Ceylon, D.N. Wadia and L.J.D. Fernando, Records of the Ceylon Department of Mineralogy, Professional Paper No. 2, pp. 13–44 (1945).  A review of gemstones found on the island.

The Absorption-Spectrum of Ceylonese Zircons, G.O. Wild and H. Biegel, The Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 190, pp. 155-157 (1947).  A description of the pattern of sharp lines seen with a spectroscope in the absorption spectrum of zircon.

The Geology and Mineral Deposits of Ceylon, L.J.D. Fernando, Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, Vol. 46, No. 2/4, pp. 303–325 (1948).  The author reviews gem and mineral occurrences.

Gem Stones of Ceylon, H.A.J. Hulugalle, Ceylon Fortnightly Review, Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 7-9; No. 8, p. 7; No. 10, p. 11; and No. 12, p. 9 (1948); Ceylon Fortnightly Review, Vol. 1, No. 18, pp. 15–32 (1949); and Ceylon Today, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 20-24 (1952).  These articles discuss gem mining on the island.

A Historical Survey of Ceylon Trade, C.E.P. Jayasuriya, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 97, No. 4802, pp. 757-768 (1949).  The author discusses the historical trade in gems and other products of the island.

Exploring the World of Gems, W.F. Foshag, National Geographic, Vol. 98, No. 6, pp. 779-810 (1950). The author discusses sources of gemstones including Sri Lanka.

The Gem Industry is Still Primitive in Ceylon, K. Parkinson, The Gemmologist, Vol. 19, No. 229, pp. 165-170 (1950).  The author discusses the state of the gem industry.

From Mud to Milady’s Neck, E.L. Robinson, The Gemmologist, Vol. 20, No. 245, pp. 251–254 (1951).  Short article on gem mining in Ceylon.

A Gemmologist in Ceylon, K. Parkinson, The Gemmologist, Vol. 20, No. 235, pp. 23-28; No. 236, p. 49; No. 238, pp. 99-103; and No. 239, p. 142 (1951).  Discussion of the gem trade on the island.

Sinhalite (MgAlBO4), a New Mineral, G.F. Claringbull and M.H. Hey, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 217, pp. 841-859 (1952). Description of a new mineral found in the gem gravels.

Unusual Two- and Three-Phase Inclusions in Ceylon Sapphire, L.P. Hoagland, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 330-336 (1952).  Study of multiphase fluid inclusions in sapphires.

Sinhalite – A New Mineral and Gemstone, C.J. Payne, The Gemmologist, Vol. 21, No. 255, pp. 177-181 (1952).  Description of a new gem mineral from the island.

Ceylon, the Island of Gems, K. Parkinson, The Gemmologist, Vol. 22, No. 258, pp. 5-7 (1953).  A discussion of the gem island.

Ceylon - Gem Shop of the World, S.J. Squires, The Gemmologist, Vol. 23, No. 271, pp. 21–23 (1954).  Short article on gem markets on the island.

Kornerupine, C.J. Payne, The Gemmologist, Vol. 23, No. 281, pp. 215-219 (1954). Description of a rare gem mineral from Ceylon.

Star Spinel Showing Four Six-rayed Stars, G.S. Switzer, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 163-164 and 190 (1955).  Description of asterism in spinel.

Corundum from Ceylon, A.J. Wells, Geological Magazine, Vol. 93, No. 1, pp. 25-31 (1956).  A review is presented of the geological occurrences of corundum crystals in host rocks in various parts of the country.

Sillimanite - The World's Newest Gem, L. Hanson, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 294-298 (1956).  Description of a new gem mineral from Sri Lanka.

Gem Mining in Ceylon, M.K.J. Semanada, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 11–13 (1958).  Short article on alluvial gem mining.

Corundum in Biotite-Sillimanite Gneiss from near Polgahawela, Ceylon, P.G. Coray and P.S. Kumarapeli, Geological Magazine, Vol. 97, No. 6, pp. 480–487 (1960). Description of corundum in a metamorphic host rock.

Ceylon – Isle of Gems, F.L.D. Ekanayaka, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 487-488 (1961).  A brief description of gems found on the island.

Ekanite, a new Metamict Mineral from Ceylon, B.W. Anderson, G.F. Claringbull, R.J. Davis and D.K. Hill, Nature, Vol. 190, No. 4780, p. 997 (1961).  A slightly radioactive mineral found in the gem gravels in Ceylon.

Ekanite: Another new metamict gem from Ceylon, E.J. Gübelin, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 163-179, 191 (1961).  Description of a new gem mineral.  A similar article appeared in The Gemmologist, Vol. 31, No. 373, pp. 142-152 and No. 374, pp. 165-1966 (1962).

Ancient Ceylon fields still Produce Gems, D. Parser, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 268–269 (1962).  A note on mining alluvial gem deposits.

Gemstones, L.J.D. Fernando, Ceylon Geographer, Vol. 18, pp. 45-48 (1964). A short article on gemstones from the island.

Apatite Crystals in a Ceylon Spinel, P.C. Zwaan, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 434-440 (1965).  Description of inclusions in a spinel

A Visit to the Isle of Jewels, G.G. Waite, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp. 940-943 and 950-951 (1966).  Report of a trip to gem localities on the island.

Gem Mining in Ceylon, L.C. Seidle, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 8, No. 65, pp. 5-8 (1966); and Vol. 9, No. 68, pp. 10-12 (1967).  Description of alluvial gem mining.

An Introduction to the Geology of Ceylon, P.G. Coray, Spolia Zeylanica – Ceylon Journal of Science, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 1-324 (1967).  This booklet presents a review of the geology of the island, including the gem deposits.

Solid Inclusions in Corundum and Almandine Garnet from Ceylon, Identified by X-ray Powder Photographs, P.C. Zwaan, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 10, No. 7, pp. 224–234 (1967). Characterisation of mineral inclusions in two gemstones.

Three Generations of Gem Merchants in Ceylon, L.C. Seidle, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 7-17 (1968).  Discussion of the gem trade on the island.

Cordierite Gneisses - Source Rock for Some Gem Deposits of Ceylon, M.B. Katz, Ceylon Association for the Advancement of Science Proceedings, Vol. No. 1, pp. 60–61 (1969); and The Precambrian Metamorphic Rocks of Ceylon, Geologische Rundschau, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 1523–1549 (1971).  Discussions on possible source rock for gemstones on the island.

Reminiscences of a Gem Hunter: Bright Jewels of the Mine, A. Ramsay and B. Sparks, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 23, No. 5, p. 690, No. 6, pp. 872–886, and No. 7, pp. 908–920 (1969).  Experiences of a gem buyer in Ceylon.

On the Origin of the Ratnapura-type Gem Deposits, M.B. Katz, Economic Geology, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 113-115 (1972).  Article not seen.

Ceylon: Jewel Case of the Indian Ocean, R.M. Pearl, Mineral Digest, Vol. 3, No. pp. 45–52 (1972).  A description of the gem island.

Study of Metamict Ceylon Zircons, E.R. Vance and B.W. Anderson, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 297, pp. 605-613 (1972); and Differences among Low Ceylon Zircons, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 298, pp. 721-724 (1972).  Two studies of the effect of radiation damage to the zircon structure leading to the lowering of optical and physical properties and a metamict material.

Pliny the Elder on Ceylon, F.F. Schwarz, Journal of Asian History, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 21-48 (1974).  Discussion of the writings of Pliny on ancient Ceylon and its riches.

Detection of Structural Varieties of Red Gem Spinels from Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka, A.A.F. Lagerwey, Scripta Geologica, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1-27 (1975).  Characterisation study of spinels from Ratnapura.

On the Occurrence of Gem Corundum in Kolonné, H.S. Gunaratne, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 29-30 (1976).  Description of a gem corundum deposit.

Sri Lanka’s Gem Industry, Unknown author, Economic Review, Vol. 3, pp. 3-15 (1977).  The author discusses the gemstone mining industry on the island.

Sinhalit und Diopsid aus Ceylon [Sinhalite and Diopside from Ceylon], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 78-79 (1977).  Description of two gem minerals.

Uvite, a Newly Classified Gem Tourmaline, P.J. Dunn, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 300-308 (1977).  Description of a new tourmaline species named after the Uva province in Sri Lanka.  A similar article appeared in the Mineralogical Record, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 100-108 (1977).

Kornerupine Cat's-eye from Sri Lanka (Ceylon), H.J. Korevaar and P.C. Zwaan, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 225-230 (1977).  Description of kornerupine displaying chatoyancy.

Gem Monazite from Sri Lanka, E.A. Jobbins, A.E. Treshman and B.R. Young, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 295-299 (1977).  Description of a mineral not usually found as gem-quality crystals.

Sri Lanka: Isle of Gems, J.C. Zeitner, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 1668-1674 and 1692-1698 (1978).  Review of the gems of the island.

Tectonic Evolution of the Archaean Granulite Facies Belt of Sri Lanka - South India, M.B. Katz, Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 185-205 (1978).  Discussion of possible source rocks for gemstones on the island.

On the Composition of Gem Scapolites, P.J. Dunn, J.E. Nelen and J. Norberg, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 4-10 (1978).  Study of gem scapolites from the island.

Neue Edelsteine aus Sri Lanka [New Gemstones from Sri Lanka], E.J. Gübelin, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 194-196 (1979).

Gem Cutting and Polishing in Sri Lanka, N. Wijesekera, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 33, No. 9, p. 2042 (1979).  Brief note on gemstone manufacturing.

Traditional Gem Mining in Sri Lanka, N. Wijesekera, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 32, No. 10, p. 2246 (1979).  Brief note on alluvial gem mining.

Gemstones of Sri Lanka, N. Wijesekera, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 1616-1618 (1980).  A description of gemstones from the island.

Die Strahlende Insel - Mineralvorkommen auf Ceylon [The Shining Island – The Mineral Occurrence of Ceylon], W. Lieber, Lapis, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 14-19 (1980).  A description of some of the gem deposits on the island.

Alexandrite-like Natural Spinel from Sri Lanka, E.J. Gübelin and K. Schmetzer, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, No. 9, pp. 428–432 (1980).  Spinel that exhibits a change of colour under different lighting.

Sphene, Sri Lanka's Newest Gemstone, P.C. Zwaan and C.E.S. Arps, Scripta Geologica, Vol. 58, pp. 1-11 (1980).  Description of a gem mineral new to the island.

Changierender Korund mit Hoher Lichtbrechung aus Sri Lanka [Colour-change Corundum with High Refractive Indices from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 29, No. 1/2, pp. 86-87 (1980).  Description of gem corundum.

Genesis of Sedimentary Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka, K. Dahanayake, A.N. Liyanage, A.P. Ranasinghe, Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 25, No. 1/2, pp. 105-115 (1980).  Secondary gem deposits are classified as residual, eluvial or alluvial depending of their mode of occurrence.  The author briefly describes the geology of the island, and concludes that the source rocks of the gem minerals are metamorphic (gneisses and skarns).

Star Quartz Asterism caused by Sillimanite, C.F. Woensdregt, M. Weibel and R. Wessicken, Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 60, No. 2/3, pp. 129-132 (1980).  The asterism seen in some quartz may be due to needles of sillimanite and not rutile.

Geology and Occurrence of Gems in Sri Lanka, J.W. Herath, Journal of the Natural Science Council of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 257-271 (1980).  The author discusses the geological setting of the gem deposits.

Modes of Occurrence and Provenances of Gemstones of Sri Lanka, K. Dahanayake, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 81-86 (1980).  A discussion of the occurrences and geological origins of the gemstones of Sri Lanka.

Mineral Resources of Sri Lanka, J.W. Herath, Geological Survey Department of Sri Lanka - Economic Bulletin, No. 2, pp. 1-70 (1980).  A government report on the mineral resources of the island.

Alexandrite-like Natural Spinel from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and E.J. Gübelin, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, No. 9, pp. 428-432 (1980).  Gem spinel with a colour change under different light sources.

Source Rocks of Gem Minerals – A Case Study from Sri Lanka, K. Dahanayake, A.P. Ranasinghe, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 103-111 (1981). Field studies indicate that the source rocks of the gem minerals include metamorphic gneisses and granulites.

The Origin of Gemstones of Sri Lanka, T. Munasinghe, C.B. Dissanayake, Economic Geology, Vol. 76, No. 5, pp. 1216-1225 (1981).  The authors discuss the genesis of gem minerals and the host rocks of gem mineral formation in the central regions of Sri Lanka.

Geuda Sapphires: Their Colouring Elements and Their Reaction to Heat, H.S. Gunaratne, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 292–300 (1981).  Discussion of the cause of colour and heat treatment of geuda sapphires.

First Occurrence of Gem Sphene in Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene and H. Hänni, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 381-385 (1981).  Description of a gem mineral new to the island.

Sphene, Another Gem Mineral from Sri Lanka, P.C. Zwaan, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 624-635 (1981).  Another description of gem sphene.

Taprobanite, a New Mineral of the Taaffeite-Group, R. Moor, W.F. Oberholzer and E.J. Gübelin, Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 13-21 (1981).  Description of a magnesium rich taaffeite.  Similar articles appeared in the Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 68, pp. 6-9 (1981) and Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 30, No. 3/4, pp. 197-206 (1981).

Sri Lanka: The Gem Island, P.C. Zwaan, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 62-71 (1982).  The author reviews the geological setting and mining of the gem occurrences, and the main types of gems that are found.

Asterism in Sri Lankan Corundum, T.G. Sahama, Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 15–20 (1982).  A description of the cause of asterism in corundum.

Blassblauer, fast Farbloser Cordierit aus Sri Lanka [Pale Blue, nearly Colourless Cordierite from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 199-200 (1982).  Description of gem iolite.

A Plate Tectonic Model for the Geologic Evolution of Sri Lanka, T. Munasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Journal of Geological Society of India, Vol. 23, No. 8, pp. 369-380 (1982).  A discussion of the geological history of the island.

Near-colourless Enstatite from Sri Lanka, R.R. Harding, E.A. Jobbins, B.R. Young and C.H. Winter, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 213-216 (1982).  Description of a gem pyroxene from the island.

Ferroaxinite - Another New Gem from Sri Lanka, H. Hänni and M. Gunawardene, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 20-27 (1982).  Description of a gem mineral new to the island.

Untersuchungen an Titanit, einem für Sri Lanka neuen Edelstein [A Study of Titanite, a new Gemstone for Sri Lanka], H. Hänni and M. Gunawardene, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, pp. 65-70 (1982).  Study of a gem mineral new to the island.

Golden Seat of Sinhala Monarchy, N. Wijesekera, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 35, No. 12, pp. 2434–2436 (1982).  Short article on the jewellery history of the island.

Medieval Sinhalese Jewelry, N. Wijesekera, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 37, No. 8, p. 1206 (1983).  Note on historical jewellery.

Taaffeite - A Rare Gemstone of Sri Lanka, D.F. Jayakody, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 74-78 (1983). Description of a rare gemstone from the gem gravels on the island.

Ratnapura – The Village of Gems, P. Francis, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 36, No. 12, pp. 1980-1987 (1983).  Description of the important gem-trading centre.

Crystal Chemistry of Natural Be-Mg-Al-oxides: Taaffeite, Taprobanite, Musgravite, K. Schmetzer, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, Vol. 146, No. 1, pp. 15-28 (1983); and Taaffeite or Taprobanite: A Problem of Mineralogical NomenclatureJournal of Gemmology, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 623-634 (1983).  These two articles discuss the relationship between several rare gem minerals from Sri Lanka.

Investigation of a Cat's-eye Scapolite from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and H. Bank, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 108-110 (1983).  Description of a scapolite displaying chatoyancy.

Rare gemstones of Sri Lanka, M.N. Deen, Lapidary Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 238-240 (1984).  Note on some unusual gem minerals from the island.

Inclusions in Taaffeites from Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 159-164 (1984).  A review of inclusions in gem taaffeites.  A similar article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 33, No. 3/4, pp. 91-95 (1984).

The Geochemistry of Beryllium and Fluorine in the Gem Fields of Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe, A. Banerjee, J. Pense and C.B. Dissanayake, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 86-93 (1984).  Geochemical exploration for gem deposits using detection of these indicator elements.

The Rare-Earth Element Abundance in the Sedimentary Dem Deposits of Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Lithos, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 329-342 (1984).  Use of rare-earth elements as indicators of the presence of alluvial gem deposits.

Fast Farbloser Olivin aus Sri Lanka [Nearly Colourless Olivine from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 33, No. 3/4, pp. 139-140 (1984).  Description of gem olivine.

A Recent Find of Taaffeite, R.B. McDowell, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 9-13 (1984).  A note on the discovery of a taaffeite deposit.

Radioactive Gem Minerals from Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Sri Lanka, No. 1, pp. 5-12 (1984).  Description of minerals such as ekanite.

Well-known Gems of Sri Lanka, T.G. Punchiappuhamy, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, No. 1, pp. 17–20 (1984); and Historical References to Gems of Sri Lanka, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, No. 2, pp. 24–27 (1985).  Two articles by the same author on gemstones of the island.

Anreicherung von Radioaktiven Elementen und Seltenen Erd Elementen in Zirkon und Monazite aus Sri Lanka [Enrichment of Radioactive Elements and Rare Earth Elements in Zircon and Monazite from Sri Lanka], M.S. Rupasinghe, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 1/2, pp. 69-75 (1985).  Chemical analysis of trace elements in gem zircon and monazite.

Charnockites and the Genesis of Gem Minerals, M.S. Rupasinghe, C.B. Dissanayake, Chemical Geology, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 1-16 (1985), and A Preliminary Geochemical Study of Sedimentary Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, Chemie der Erde, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 281-298 (1985).  Charnockites are part of the high-grade metamorphic terrains in central Sri Lanka, and geochemical investigations reported in these two articles suggest that these rocks played a role in the formation of the gem minerals.

Peridot - Olivine in Edelsteinqualitat [Peridot – Gem-quality Olivine], K. Fischer, Lapis Magazin, Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 31-40 (1985).  Description of peridot from the island.

Farblose Cordierite und Cordierit-katzenaugen aus Sri Lanka [Colourless Cordierite and Cordierite Cat’s-eyes from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 1/2, pp. 79-80 (1985).  Description of gem iolite.

Peridot from Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 692-702 (1985).  Description of gem peridot.

A Tourmaline with an Unusual Colour Behaviour from Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Sri Lanka, No. 2, pp. 14-17 (1985).  Description of a colour-change tourmaline.

Geology and Mineralogy of Gemming Terrains of Sri Lanka, K. Dahanayake, A.P. Ranasinghe, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 57, No. 1/2, pp. 139-149 (1985).  Gemming in the country is carried out in river valleys and on hill slopes that are underlain by ancient, high-grade metamorphic rocks.  The authors discuss the geological origin of the most important gem minerals.

Hiddenite of Gem Quality from the Kataragama Area in south eastern Sri Lanka, C.E.S. Arps and P.C. Zwaan, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Sri Lanka, No. 2, pp. 7-13 (1985).  Description of gem spodumene from the island.

Inclusions in Corundum from Sri Lanka, H. Schrader, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, Vol. No. 2, pp. 37–41 (1985).  Study of inclusions in gem corundum.

Untersuchungen an Kornerupin und Sinhalit von Elahera, Sri Lanka [Study of Kornerupine and Sinhalite from Elahera, Sri Lanka], U. Henn,  Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 1/2, pp. 13-19 (1985).  Gemmological description of two gem minerals.

Charnockites and the Genesis of Gem Minerals, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Chemical Geology, Vol. 53, No. 1/2, pp. 1-16 (1985).  Discussion of the geological sources of alluvial gem minerals.

Zirkon-Katzenauge aus Sri Lanka [Zircon Cat’s-eyes from Sri Lanka], H.J. Müllenmeister, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 3/4, pp. 164-166 (1985).  Description of chatoyant zircons.

A Preliminary Geochemical Study of Sedimentary Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Chemie der Erde, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 281-298 (1985).  Discussion of the geological setting of alluvial gem deposits.

Colourless Enstatite from Embilipitiya, Sri Lanka E.G. Zoysa, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 419-425 (1985). Description of a gem pyroxene.

Special Report: The Gem Industry in Sri Lanka, W.G.S. Waidyanatha, Economic Review (Colombo), Vol. 11, pp. 2–18 (1985).  Review of the gem industry on the island.

Scheelite, Green Feldspar Orthoclase, Fibrolite (Sillimanite) from Ratnapura Area, Sri Lanka, E.G. Zoysa, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Sri Lanka, No. 2, pp. 18-23 (1985).  Description of unusual gem minerals.

Zincian taaffeite from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and H. Bank, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 494-497 (1985).  A study of gem taaffeite.  A similar article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 1/2, pp. 20-23 (1985).

Crystal Chemistry of Zincian Spinels (Gahnospinels)from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and H. Bank, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, No. 8, pp. 353-356 (1985); and Gahnospinelle aus Sri Lanka [Gahnospinel from Sri Lanka], Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 3/4, pp. 92-97 (1985); and A Re-investigation of Gahnospinels from Sri Lanka, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 157-160 (1986).  Three studies of gem zinc-bearing spinels.

Review of the Geology of the Gemstones of Sri Lanka, M.B. Katz, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 52-56, 63 (1986). The author presents a review of the gem occurrences in Sri Lanka and current ideas on gem mineral formation.

Gem Minerals from the Embilipitiya and Kataragama Areas in Sri Lanka, P.C. Zwaan, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 35-40 (1986).  Description of two alluvial gem-mining areas.

On the Origin of Blue Sapphire from Elahera, Sri Lanka, G. Heilmann and U. Henn, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 2-4 (1986).  Discussion of the origin of blue sapphires.

Some Unusual Sillimanite Cat's-eyes, E.J. Gübelin, M. Weibel and C.F. Woensdregt, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 96-98 (1986). Description of sillimanites that exhibit chatoyancy.

Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka with Special Emphasis on Recent Discoveries, E.G.G. Zoysa, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 110-114 (1986). A short review of the different types of gem and mineral deposits that are found on the island.

Study of Scapolite, Corundum and Spinel Crystals from the Tissamaharama Area, Sri Lanka, R. Vochten, E. De Grave and P.C. Zwaan, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 91-94 (1986). Description of several gem minerals.

Some Observations on Brown Tourmalines from Elahera, Sri Lanka, U. Henn and M. Schramm, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 154-156 (1986).  Description of a gem tourmaline.  The same article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 34, No. 3/4, pp. 98-100 (1985).

An unusual needle-like inclusion in gem sinhalite from Elahera, Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 98-99 (1986).  Description of inclusions in sinhalite.

The Elahera Gem Field in Central Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene and M.S. Rupasinghe, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 80-95 (1986).  Description of the famous alluvial gem locality.

Ein Oktaedrischer Gahnospinell-rohstein von Ratnapura, Sri Lanka [An Octahedral Rough Gahnospinel from Ratnapura, Sri Lanka], G. Frenzel, V. Stähle and F.H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 35, No. 1/2, pp. 39-46 (1986).  Examination of a gahno-spinel crystal.

Natürliche Kobaltblaue Spinelle von Ratnapura, Sri Lanka [Natural Cobalt-blue Spinel from Ratnapura, Sri Lanka], H. Harder, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, No. 3, pp. 97-100 (1986).  Description of deep-blue natural spinel coloured by cobalt.

Characterization of Some Scapolite, Corundum and Spinel Crystals from Kochipadana and Amarawewa, Kataragama Area, Sri Lanka, E. De Grave, R. Vochten, P.C. Zwaan and J. Craenen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 35, No. 1/2, pp. 47-57 (1986).  Study of some alluvial gem minerals.

The Niobium and Yttrium Abundances in the Sedimentary Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Journal of the National Sciences Council of Sri Lanka, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 55–74 (1986).  Use of rare earth abundances as a tool to explore for alluvial gem deposits.

Fluorine as an Indicator of Mineralization - Hydrogeochemistry of a Precambrian Mineralized Belt in Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and S.V.R. Weerasooriya, Chemical Geology, Vol. 56, No. 3/4, pp. 257-270 (1986).  Discussion of the use of data on fluorine contents in sediments as an indicator of gem mineralisation.

Light, Heavy and Rare Minerals in the Washed Gem Gravels of Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe, A. Senaratne and C.B. Dissanayake, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 177-184 (1986).  A description of minerals found with gem minerals in concentrates obtained from washing gem gravels.

Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka with Special Emphasis on Recent Discoveries, E.G. Zoysa, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 110-114 (1986).  Description of several gem deposits.

An Account of Chrysoberyl-bearing Pegmatite near Pattara, Sri Lanka, E.G. Zoysa, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 20, No. 7/8, pp. 486-489 (1987).  Description of a gem deposit.

New Gems from the Ratnapura Area, Sri Lanka, E.G. Zoysa, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 239-241 (1987).  Description of a gem deposit.

Dreiphaseneinschlüsse in einem Gelben Sapphir aus Sri Lanka [Three-phase Fluid Inclusions in a Golden Sapphire from Sri Lanka], K. Schmetzer, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 36, No. 1/2, pp. 79–81 (1987).  Description of multiphase fluid inclusions in a sapphire.

New In-situ Corundum Deposits in Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, No. 4, pp. 2–5 (1987).  Description of a locality where corundum is found in the primary host rock.

Orientated Lath-like Inclusions of a New Type in Spinel, K. Schmetzer, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 69-72 (1988).  A description of unusual spinel inclusions. The same article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 36, No. 1/2, pp. 11-17 (1987).

Examination of Three-phase Inclusions in Colorless, Yellow, and Blue Sapphires from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and O. Medenbach, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 107–111 (1988).  Study of fluid inclusions in gem sapphires.

Investigation of Cat's-eye Zircons from Sri Lanka, M. Gunawardene, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 88-91 (1988). Description of zircons with chatoyancy.
Geology and the Origin of the Corundum-bearing Skarn at Bakamuna, Sri Lanka, K.K.M.W. Silva and C.H.E.R. Siriwardena, Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 186–190 (1988).  Description of a skarn deposit that contains corundum.

The Socio-Economic Impact of the Geuda Trade and the Thai-Lanka Geuda Agreement, W.G.B. Waidyanatha, Journal of the Gemmologist’s Association of Sri Lanka, Vol. No. 5, pp. 12–23 (1988).  Discussion of the heat treatment of geuda corundum in Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Origin of the Cat’s-eye Effect in Heat-treated Zircons from Sri Lanka, H.A. Hänni and M. Weibel, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 16, No. 10, pp. 363-366 (1988).  Discussion of zircon chatoyancy.  The same article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 38, No. 2/3, pp. 95-101 (1989).

Une Gemme Métamicte: L'ékanite [A Metamict Gem, Ekanite], J.P. Gauthier and P. Fumey, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 94, pp. 3-7 (1988).  Description of the slightly radioactive gem mineral from Sri Lanka.

Zur Farbveränderung von Korunden bei Hitzebehandlung [The Colour Change in Corundum with Heat Treatment], N. Waber, T. Frieden, H.A. Hänni, R. Iff and E. Niggli, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 37, No. 1/2, pp. 57-68 (1988).  A heat-treatment study of gem corundum.

Isotopic Mapping of Age Provinces in Precambrian High-grade Terrains: Sri Lanka, C.C. Milisenda, T.C. Liew, A.W. Hofmann and A. Kröner, Journal of Geology, Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 608-615 (1988). A geological study of the metamorphic terrain on the island.  These rocks are thought to be the source of some of the coloured gemstones.

The Muslim Lapidary, M.M.M. Mahroof, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 405-410 (1989). A discussion of the history of the lapidary industry on the island.

“Periplus Maris Erythraei [Circumnavigation of the Red Sea]”, L. Casson, Princeton University Press, Princeton (1989). Modern republication of a book, written in the first century AD by a Greek merchant or sailor, which provides one of the most important sources of information on the trade been ancient Rome and the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean, including Ceylon.

Sternskapolith von Sri Lanka [Star Scapolite from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 37, No. 1/2, pp. 76-77 (1988).  Description of scapolite displaying asterism.

Scientific Aspects of Geuda Beneficiation, R.N. Ediriweera, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 5, No. pp. 1-6 (1988); and The Commercial Impact of the Benefication of Geuda, A.E.T. Ellawala, Journal of the Gemmologists Association of Sri Lanka, Vol. No. 5, pp. 31–35 (1988); and Heat Treatment of Geuda Stones: Spectral Investigation, R.N. Ediriweera and S.I. Perera, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 403–404 (1989). These three articles discuss details of the heat treatment of cloudy ‘geuda’ sapphire to make more valuable blue sapphire.

Changierender Taaffeit aus Sri Lanka [Colour-change Taaffeite from Sri Lanka], H. Bank and U. Henn, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 38, No. 2/3, pp. 89-94 (1989).  Description of colour-change taaffeite.

Saphirblauer, Durchsichtiger Sapphirin aus Sri Lanka [Sapphire-blue, Transparent Sapphirine from Sri Lanka], H. Bank, H.V. Platen and A.G.B. Amarasinghe, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 38, No. 2/3, pp. 103-105 (1989).  Description of gem sapphirine.

Fluid and Mineral Inclusions in Corundum from Gem Gravels in Sri Lanka, A.A. De Maesschalck and I.S. Oen, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 53, No. 373, pp. 539-545 (1989).  Study of inclusions in gem corundum.

Sapphirine from the Kolonne Area, Sri Lanka, R.R. Harding and E.G. Zoysa, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 136-140 (1990).  Description of gem sapphirine.

Spectroscopic Evidence for Heat Treatment of Blue Sapphires from Sri Lanka - Additional Data, K. Schmetzer and L. Kiefert, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 80-82 (1990).  Discussion of the use of spectral features to detect heat treatment in blue sapphires.

Spectroscopic Evidence for Heat Treatment of Blue Sapphires from Sri Lanka - Additional Data, K. Schmetzer, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 80-82 (1990).  A discussion of the detection of heat treatment in sapphire.

Laser Tomographic Observations of Heat-treated Sapphire from Sri Lanka, J. Shida, Journal of the Gemmological Society of Japan, Vol. 15, No. 1/4, pp. 22-27 (1990).  Use of a technique to detect heat treatment in Sri Lankan sapphires.

Klare und Trübe Korunde als Rohsteine für Wärmebehandelte Saphire aus Sri Lanka [Clear and Cloudy Corundum as Raw Materials for Heat Treatment of Sapphire in Sri Lanka], H. Harder, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 73-87 (1990).  Discussion of starting materials for sapphire heat treatment to change its colour.

The Timescale and Mechanism of Granulite Formation at Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, K.W. Burton and R.K. O’Nions, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 106, No. 1, pp. 66-89 (1990).  The authors discuss the origin of granulites, the metamorphic rocks which are thought to be the sources of some of the coloured stones from Sri Lanka.

Contributions to a History of Gemmology—Carl Peter Thunberg and Ceylon Gemstones, J. Sinkankas, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 22, No. 8, pp. 463–470 (1991).  Discussion of an early account of Sri Lankan gemstones.

Petrology and Fluid Inclusions in Garnetiferous Gneisses and Charnockites from Weddagala (Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka), A.A. De Maesschalck, J.L.R. Touret, P. Masskant and K. Dahanayake, Journal of Geology, Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 443-456 (1991).  Gneisses and charnockites (pyoxene granites) are rocks that are thought to be possible sources of coloured gemstones.  This article presents the results of a petrological study of these two rock types.

Geothermometry and Geobarometry of High-grade Rocks: A Case Study on Garnet-Pyroxene Granulites in Southern Sri Lanka, S. Faulhaber and M. Raith, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 378, pp. 33-56 (1991).  A geological study of high-grade metamorphic rocks as possible sources of coloured gemstones.

Sternbronzit aus Sri Lanka [Star Bronzite from Sri Lanka], U. Henn and H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 40, No. 2/3, pp. 145-148 (1991).  Description of a gem pyroxene that displays asterism.

Gem Deposits of South-Western Sri Lanka, T.G. Pemadasa, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 347-349 (1991).  A description of an important area of gem deposits.

The Sri Lanka Ruby: Fact or Fable? M.M.M. Mahroof, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 20-24 (1992). While sapphires from Sri Lanka are abundant, the occurrences of ruby on the island are rare, despite the references to it in the historical literature.

La Kornerupine d'Embilipitiya, Sri Lanka, P.C. Zwaan, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 110, pp. 5-6 (1992).  Note on a rare gem mineral.

Unusual Corundum-bearing Gem Pockets at Avissawella and Getahetta, Sri Lanka, W.L.D.R.A. Kumaratilake and U.N. Ranasinghe, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 7-16 (1992).  Description of corundum occurrences.

Embilipitiya, an Interesting Gem Deposit in Sri Lanka, P.C. Zwaan, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 196-197 (1992).  Note on an important alluvial gem deposit.

Fluorine Hydrochemistry in a Topaz-rich Area in Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake, M.S. Rupasinghe and T. Dharmaratne, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 41, No. 2/3, pp. 111-116 (1992).  Study of the fluorine content of sediments and waters as an indicator of topaz mineralisation.

Heat-treated Pink Spinel from Sri Lanka, G.J. Hamel, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 151-152 (1992). Discussion of evidence of heat treatment in spinel.

Moonstone Mining in Sri Lanka: New Aspects, H. Harder, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 27-35 (1992).  Discussion of mining of moonstone (feldspar).  A similar article appeared in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 41, No. 2/3, pp. 69-84 (1992).

Application of Rb-Sr ratios to Gem Exploration in the Granulite Belt of Sri Lanka, S.J.K. Gamage, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 281–292 (1992).  Use of rubidium/strontium ratios in metamorphic rocks as an aid in the exploration of gem deposits.

Application of Geochemistry to Exploration for Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 165–175 (1992). A discussion of geochemical techniques in the exploration for alluvial gem deposits.

New Gem Localities in Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Resource Geology Special Issue, Vol. No. 16, pp. 271-275 (1993). A review of new gem localities on the island.

Age of Metamorphism in the High-grade Rocks of Sri Lanka, A. Kröner and I.S. Williams, Journal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 5, pp. 513-521 (1993).  A geological age dating of metamorphic rocks that are considered the source of some of the coloured gemstones found on the island.

A Tentative Classification of Heat-treatable Corundum (Geuda) Stones, M.S. Rupasinghe, R.A.P. Rupasinghe, C.B. Dissanayake and O.A. Ileperuma, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 42, No. 2/3, pp. 115-121 (1993).  A discussion of the types of gueda corundum and their suitability for heat-treatment to produce blue sapphires.

Gemmological Examination of a Colour-changing Cobalt Spinel, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 47-50 (1993). Description of a gem spinel.

A Prospector’s Guide Map to the Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 173-181 (1993).  The authors report the results of a field survey designed to produce the first map of the island for use by gem prospectors.

Application of Structural Geology in the Exploration for Residual Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, D.P.J. Mendis, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.D. Dissanayake, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 31–40 (1993).  The authors discuss geological indicators of the presence of alluvial gem deposits.

The First Occurrence of Musgravite as a Faceted Gemstone, F. Demartin, T. Pilati, C.M. Gramaccioli and V. de Michele, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 23, No. 8, pp. 482-485 (1993).  Description of a gem mineral from the island.

Geschliffene, grunlich-braune Hornblende aus Sri Lanka [Faceted greenish-brown Hornblende from Sri Lanka], U. Henn and H. Bank, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 163-169 (1993).  Description of a gem amphibole.

Heat Treated Corundums of Sri Lanka: Their Heat Treatment, T.G. Pemadasa and M.V. Danapala, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 346-347 (1994). The authors discuss heat treatment to change the colour and clarity of corundum.

Geochemical Exploration for Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka - Application of Discriminant Analysis, C.B. Dissanayake, M.S. Rupasinghe and D.P.J. Mendis, Chemie der Erde, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 33-47 (1994).  Discussion of a mathematical technique for analysing trace element chemical composition data in connection with the exploration of alluvial gem deposits.

Use of Indicator Minerals in Gem Exploration: Study of a Granulitic Terrain in Sri Lanka, M.S. Rupasinghe, C.B. Dissanayake and D.P.J. Mendis, Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 249-254 (1994). Discussion of techniques used to explore for alluvial gem deposits.

Petrology of Granulite-facies Metapelites of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka: Implications for the Metamorphic Zonation and the Pressure-Temperaure Path, P. Raase and V. Schenk, Precambrian Research, Vol. 66, No. 1/4, pp. 265-294 (1994).  Geological field study of high-grade metamorphic rocks.

The Precambrian of Sri Lanka: A Historical Review, P.G. Coray, Precambrian Research, Vol. 66, No. 1/4, pp. 3-18 (1994).  A review of the Precambrian rocks of the island, which are likely to be the source rocks for many of the gems found in alluvial deposits.

Gems and Gemmology in Sri Lanka: The early history, M.M.M. Mahroof, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 169–174 (1995).  Discussion of the history of gems on the island.

Gem Deposits in Sri Lanka with Special Emphasis on Unusual Types of Gems, E.G. Zoysa, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Hong Kong, Vol. 18, pp. 27-33 (1995).  Review of gem deposits on the island.

Euhedral Sinhalite Crystals from Sri Lanka, L.C. Pitman, C.S. Hurlbut and C.A. Francis, Mineralogical Record, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 91-94 (1995).  Description of gem sinhalite crystals.

The Pan-African Gemstone Province of East Gondwana, R.D. Menon and M. Santosh, Memoirs of the Geological Society of India, No. 34, pp. 357-371 (1995).  The authors discuss geological aspects of the gemstone province which includes the countries of eastern Africa as well as Sri Lanka and southern India.

Classification of Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Geologie en Mijnbouw, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 79-88 (1995).  A proposed classification of the different types of gem deposits on the island.

Application of Statistical Modelling to Gem Exploration in Sedimentary Gem Deposits in High-grade Gneiss Terrains of Sri Lanka, G.W.A.R. Fernando, M.S. Rupasinghe and C.B. Dissanayake, Journal of the Geological Society of Sri Lanka, Vol. 6, pp. 15-26 (1995/1996).  Discussion of statistical analysis of chemical composition data for exploration of alluvial gem deposits.

Charakterisierung von Saphiren mit Hilfe von Flussigkeitseinschlussen [Characterisation of Sapphires with Help of Fluid Inclusions], B. Bruder, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 47-54 (1996).  Discussion of the use of fluid inclusions in gem corundum studies.

Zoning in Sri Lankan Zircons: Chemically Controlled?, M.S. Rupasinghe and A. Senaratne, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 288-291 (1996).  Study of gem zircons.

Enstatite, Cordierite, Kornerupine, and Scapolite with Unusual Properties from Embilipitiya, Sri Lanka, P.C. Zwaan, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 262-269 (1996).  Description of several gem minerals.

Gems of Sri Lanka: A List of Cat's-eyes and Stars, W.L.D.R.A. Kumaratilake, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 474-482 (1997).  A list of gems displaying asterism or chatoyancy.

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Identifying Solid Inclusions in Corundum: Thorite in a ‘Sri Lanka’ Sapphire, S. Carbonin, G. Sbrignadello and D. Ajo, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 262–264 (1998).  Study of inclusions in sapphire.

A Note on Buttala and Okkampitiya Gem Fields in Sri Lanka, R. Chandrajith, C.B. Dissanayake and H.J. Tobschall, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 69-76 (1998).  A description of several alluvial gem fields.

Corundum in the Gem Gravels of Sri Lanka, D.J.A.C. Hapuarachchi, Gondwana Research, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, pp. 415-416 (1998).  A note on alluvial gem corundum.

Some Greenish Brown Gemstones from Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Gemologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 167-169 (1998).  Description of gems found in a range of colour.

Identification of Some Colourless Gemstones from Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 105-109 (1999).  Description of various colourless gem minerals.

Vertical Variation of Selected Trace Elements in Gem Deposits from Ratnapura and Buttala Gem Fields in Sri Lanka, R. Chandrajith, C.B. Dissanayake and H.J. Tobschall, Chemie der Erde, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 135-150 (1999).  Geochemical field study on the use of trace elements in soils as a tool to explore for alluvial gem deposits.

Brothers Corundum: Sapphires in Sri Lanka, M.M.M. Mahroof, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp. 321-325 (1999). This article reviews the history of gem sapphire from the island.  In recent decades, the heat-treatment of whitish or yellowish “geuda” corundum to blue sapphire has become a well-developed industry.

The World of Sri Lanka Gems: Then and Now, M.M.M. Mahroof, Canadian Gemologist, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 119-124 (1999) and Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 9-16 (2000).  The author reviews the development of the Sri Lankan gem industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, including both mining and manufacturing.

Die Edelsteine Sri Lankas: Vorkommen und Genese [Gemstones of Sri Lanka: Occurrence and Formation], C.C. Milisenda and U. Henn, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 85-96 (1999).  A survey of the gemstone occurrences is presented, along with the geological conditions which resulted in the formation of important gem-bearing metamorphic rocks.

Petrology of Sapphirine-bearing and Associated Granulites from Central Sri Lanka, L.M. Kriegsman and J.C. Schumacher, Journal of Petrology, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 1211-1239 (1999).  Petrological study of granulites as possible sources of coloured gemstones.

Sri Lanka - Madagascar Gondwana Linkage: Evidence for a Pan-African Mineral Belt, C.B. Dissanayake and R. Chandrajith, Journal of Geology, Vol. 107, No. 2, pp. 223-235 (1999).  Discussion of the geological connections between gem deposits in Sri Lanka with those along eastern Africa and Madagascar.

Origin of Some Gem Minerals in Sri Lanka: Evidence from Corundum-Spinel-Scheelite-Taaffeite-bearing Rocks, G.W.A. Rohan-Fernando and W. Hofmeister, Applied Mineralogy, pp. 293-295 (2000).  Discussion of the geological settings of gem mineral formation.

The Geology, Mineralogy, and Rare-Earth Geochemistry of the Gem Deposits of Sri Lanka, C.B. Dissanayake, R. Chandrajith, H.J. Tobschall, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 72, No. 1/2, pp. 5-20 (2000).  The authors report the results of a geochemical study of gem-bearing sediments to better understand the metamorphic and igneous host-rocks of the gem minerals in the country, and the use of these data to explore for gem deposits.  Similar studies by the same authors appeared in Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 1369-1381 (2000); in Gondwana Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 189-204 (2000); in Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 339-350 (2001); and in Chemical Geology, Vol. 175, No. 3/4, pp. 259-271 (2001).

An Unusual Olivine Group Gemstone from the Kolonne Area, Sri Lanka, M. Burford and D.P. Gunasekara, Canadian Gemmologist, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 84-90 (2000).  Discussion of gem olivine.

Occurrences of Two New Types of Gem Deposits in the Okkampitiya Gem Field, Sri Lanka, V. Mathavan, S.T. Kalubandara and G.W.A.R. Fernando, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 65-72 (2000).  Description of a gem occurrence.

A Metamorphic Petrologist's View on Gemstone Formation: An Example from Sri Lanka, L.P. Baumgartner, G.W.A.R. Fernando, C. Hauzenberger and W. Hofmeister, International Workshop on Material Characterization by Solid State Spectroscopy, pp. 139-144 (2001).  A discussion of the geological conditions in Sri Lanka that favoured gem formation.

Serendipity and the jewels of Serendib, D.C. Almond and A. Gunatilaka, Journal of the Geological Society of Sri Lanka, Vol. 10, pp. 5-25 and 49-67 (2001).  The authors discuss the geological conditions that produced the conditions for a variety of gem minerals to be found on the island.

The Fashioning of Rock Crystal for Spectacles in Sri Lanka, M.D.P.L. Francis and P.G.R. Dharamaratne, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 291-294 (2011).  The cutting of quartz crystals as lenses for spectacles.

Sapphirin aus Sri Lanka [Sapphirine from Sri Lanka], U. Henn, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 112-115 (2001).  Description of gem sapphirine.

Sri Lanka Gem Industry: Past, Present, and Future, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 199-206 (2001).  A history of the gem industry on the island.

Gem Mining and Sustainable Environmental Management in Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 153-161 (2002).  Discussion of efforts to protect the environment during gem mining.

Identification of Some Yellow-Orange Gemstones from Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 41-46 (2002).  Study of gem minerals in a particular colour range.

Gem-quality Chondrodite from Balangoda, Sri Lanka, J.C. Zwaan and E.G. Zoysa, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 162-168 (2002). Description of gem chondrodite.

The Peculiarity of Olivine from Sri Lanka, G. Graziani, L. Martarelli and E.G. Zoysa, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 29-39 (2002).  Description of gem olivine.

Serendibite from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer, G. Bosshart, H.J. Bernhard, E.J. Gübelin and C.P. Smith, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 73-79 (2002). A study of a rare gem mineral.

The First Transparent Faceted Grandidierite from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer, M. Burford, L. Kiefert and H.J. Bernhardt, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 32-37 (2003).  A study of a rare gem mineral.

Multi-star Quartzes from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer and M. Glas, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 321-332 (2003).  Study of asterism in quartz spheres.

Recent Discoveries of Large Sapphires in Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharmaratne, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 37-40 (2003).  Report on the occurrence of large sapphire crystals.

Gemstone Mineralization in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (Karur-Kangayam belt), Southern India, M. Santosh and A.S. Collins, Gondwana Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 911-918 (2003).  Geological field study of an area of gem mineralisation.

Some Preliminary Observations of Primary Corundum Occurrences from Balangoda Region, Sri Lanka, M.D.P.L. Francis, P.G.R. Dharmaratne and R. Giere, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 52, No. 2/3, pp. 81-90 (2003).  Study of an occurrence of corundum crystals in their primary host rock.

Proterozoic Crustal Evolution of Southernmost India and Sri Lanka, I. Braun and L.M. Kriegsman, Geological Society of London - Special Publication, Vol. 206, pp. 169-202 (2003).  Discussion of the geological history of Sri Lanka and the nearby portion of southern India.

A Recent Observation of Corundum-Spinel-Sapphirine Assemblage at Kaltota in Balangoda Region, Sri Lanka, and its Significance as a Cabochoning Material, M.D.P.L. Francis and H. Matsueda, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 43-52 (2004).  Description of a metamorphic rock that can be used for making cabochons.

Mechanical Mining versus Traditional Mining in Sri Lanka, M. Vithanage and M. Rupasinghe, Canadian Gemmologist, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 96-103 (2004).  A discussion of mining methods for alluvial gem deposits.

Ultrahigh-temperature Metamorphism (1150°C, 12 kbar) and Multistage Evolution of Magnesium, Aluminum-rich Granulites from the Central Highland Complex, Sri Lanka, K. Sajeev and Y. Osanai, Journal of Petrology, Vol. 45, No. 9, pp. 1821-1844 (2004).  Study of high-grade metamorphic rocks that might be a source of gem minerals.

Occurrence of In-situ Corundum in Kegalle District, Sri Lanka, T.S. Dharmaratne, R. Chandrajith and S. Weerawarnakula, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 21-34 (2005). Description of corundum found in a primary host rock.

Gem-quality Musgravite from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer, L. Kiefert, H.J. Bernhardt and M. Burford, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 29, No. 5/6, pp. 281-289 (2005).  Study of a rare gem mineral.  A similar article appeared in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, Vol. 181, No. 3, pp. 265-270 (2005).

 Application of Geochemical Ratios for Delineating Gem-bearing Areas in High Grade Metamorphic Terrains, P.N. Ranasinghe, C.B. Dissanayake and M.S. Rupasinghe, Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 20, No. 8, pp. 1489-1495 (2005).  Discussion of exploration tools used to locate alluvial gem deposits.

Iron- and Zinc-rich Gem-quality Taaffeites from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer, L. Kiefert, H.J. Bernhardt, M. Burford and D.P. Gunaserkara, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 29, No. 5/6, pp. 290-298 (2005).  Study of a rare gem mineral.

Metamorphic Evolution of High-pressure and Ultrahigh-temperature Granulites from the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka, Y. Osanai, K. Sajeev, M. Owada, K.V.W. Kehelpannala, W.K.B.N. Prame, N. Nakano and S. Jayatileke, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 20-37 (2006).  Geological study of metamorphic rocks that could be a source of gemstones on the island.

The Variation in Gemmological Properties and Chemical Composition of Gem-quality Taaffeites and Musgravites from Sri Lanka, K. Schmetzer, L. Kiefert, H.J. Bernhardt and M. Burford, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 485-492 (2006).  A study of the gemmological properties of rare gem minerals.

Cross-twinning in a Natural Spinel from Sri Lanka, R.A. Fregola and E. Scandale, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 529-541 (2007).  Description of spinel twins.

Le Colline aux Aigues-marines d'Opanayake, Sri Lanka [The Hill of Aquamarines at Opanayake, Sri Lanka], P. Algier, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 161, pp. 15-21 (2007).  Description of the gem pegmatite deposit.

Role of Basin-wide Landslides in the Formation of Extensive Alluvial Gemstone Deposits in Sri Lanka, A. Gunatilaka, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 1863-1873 (2007).  The author discusses the possible role of landslides in creating alluvial gem deposits.

New Primary Gem Occurrences in Sri Lanka, J.C. Zwaan and E.G. Zoysa, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 57, No. 1/2, pp. 23-32 (2008). Description of occurrences where gem minerals are found in their primary host rock.

Hypersthen aus Sri Lanka [Hypersthene from Sri Lanka], U. Henn, Gemmologie - Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 59, No. 1/2, pp. 51-52 (2010).  Description of a gem pyroxene.

Sapphires from Sri Lanka, T. Waltham, Geology Today, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 20-24 (2011).  This article describes the small-scale gem mining industry to extract corundum and other gem minerals from alluvial gravels and colluvium.

Cause Chimiche delle Variaziioni di Colore degli Zaffiri di Ratnapura (Sri Lanka) [Chemical Cause of the Variation in Colour of Sapphires from Ratnapura (Sri Lanka)], F.M. Oltean, A. Gorghinian, A. Marcelli, A. Esposito and A. Mottana, Rivista Gemmologica Italiana, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 31-42 (2011).  Study of the variations in colour of Ratnapura sapphires.

Emplacement and Evolution History of Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Deposits, Matale District, Sri Lanka, G.W.A.R. Fernando, A. Pitawala and T.H.N.G. Amaraweera, International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 348-362 (2011).  A geological field study of gem deposits.

An Overview of the Fantastic Gemstones of Sri Lanka, E.G. Zoysa, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Hong Kong, Vol. 32, pp. 97-102 (2011).  Review of gemstone resources of the island.

The Mirisatahela Primary Sapphire Deposit in Sri Lanka, E.S. Liu and E.G. Zoysa, InColor Magazine, No. 18, pp. 34-39 (2011).  Description of a sapphire deposit.

“Gems of Sri Lanka”, D.H. Ariyaratna, 177 pp. (2012).  This book provides a recent summary of the gems on the island.

Sapphires from Thammannawa, Kataragama Area, Sri Lanka, P.G.R. Dharamaratne, H.M.R. Premasiri and D. Dillimuni, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 98-107 (2012). Description of a sapphire occurrence.

Primary Corundum from Mirisataehela in Sri Lanka, C.K. Chan, Journal of the Gemmological Association of Hong Kong, Vol. 33, pp. 29-33 and Vol. 34, pp. 24-29 (2012 and 2013).  Description of corundum in a primary host rock on the island.

Investigating the Colour of Spinel, Part 1. Red gem-quality Spinels (“Balas”) from Ratnapura (Sri Lanka), A. Gorghinian, A. Mottana, A. Rossi, F.M. Oltean, A. Esposito and A. Marcelli, Rendiconti Lincei, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 127-140 (2013).

Sri Lanka: Expedition to the Island of Jewels, A. Lucas, A. Sammoon, A.P. Jayarajah, T. Hsu and P. Padua, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 174-201 (2014).  A report of a GIA field expedition to gem localities on the island.

Geologie et Gisements de Gemmes au Sri Lanka [Geology and Deposits of Gems in Sri Lanka], E.G. Zoysa, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. 198, pp. 19-21 (2016).  A review of gem occurrences on the island.

Ultrahigh Temperature Granulites of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka, Y. Osanai, K. Sajeev, N. Nakano, I. Kitano, K.V.W. Kehelpannala, R. Kato, T. Adachi and S.P.K. Malaviarachchi, Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 145-156 and 157-169 (2016).  A geological field study of granulite metamorphic rocks.

Large 12-rayed Black Star Sapphire from Sri Lanka with Asterism caused by Ilmenite Inclusions, T.N. Bui, P. Entremont and J.P. Gauthier, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 430-435 (2017).  Description of sapphires displaying asterism.

Ancient Sri Lankan Intaglios: Some Preliminary Observations, M.D.P.L. Francis and S. Wijewardane, Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 26, No. 11/12, pp. 270-279 (2018).  Description of ancient intaglio gems.

The Modern History of Gemstone Faceting in Sri Lanka, J.K. Prim, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 448-455 (2019).  The author discusses modern methods of gem faceting.

U-Pb Ages of Zircon Inclusions in Sapphires from Ratnapura and Balangoda (Sri Lanka) and Implications for Origin Determination, E. Elmaleh, S.T. Schmidt, S. Karampelas, K. Link, L. Kiefert, A. Sussenberger and A. Paul, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 18-28 (2019).  The age dating of zircon inclusions as an additional method for determining country-of-origin of gem sapphires.

Dr James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California.